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TANTRIK TEXTS 



Edited by ARTHUR AVALON 
VOL. XVI. 




SHARADATILAKATANTRAM 

PART I. 



• Calcutta : 

SANSKRIT PRESS DEPOSITORY, 



London : 
UZAC & CO., 

' RUSSELL STREE' 



AGAMANUSANDHANA SAMITI. 



7A, Chaltabagan, Calcutta. 

The object of the Society is the preservation and promulgation of a 
knowledge of the Agama by the publication of Texts and other works on the 
Shftstra, by the copying and suitable distribution of Texts and other works 
dealing with the Agamas. 

LIST OF PUBLICATIONS 

Vol. I. Tantrabhidkana with Bljanighantu and MudrSnighantu. — A 
Tantrik Dictionary. (Revised and enlarged 2nd Ed. In preparation.) 

Vol. II. ShatchakranirUpana.—h work on Ku«ialimyoga with two 
lucid Commentaries. Padukapdnchaka— with Commentary. 
Edited by Taranatha Vidyiratna. Introduction by Arthur Avalon. 
and Ed. thoroughly revised with variant readings ... ... 3 o 

Vol. III. Prapanchasara Tantra. — A Tantrik Compendium by 
Shamkaracharya. and Ed. with the Commentary of Padmap&da 
and a gloss thereon. The book contains the general rules applicable 
to all the different forms of Tantrik Sadhana and worship as also 
a summary of each of the different systems ( nearly ready ) 

Vol. IV. Kulachadamaninigama. Introduction by Ak^aya Kumara 

Maitra, c.i.e., k.i.h. ... ... ... ... a 0 

Vol. V. Kularnava Tantra. The most authoritative work on Kula 
Dharma. Edited by Taranatha Vidyaratna. Introduction by Arthur 
Avalon ... ... ... ... ... 4 0 

Vol VI. Kaliavilasa Tantra.— Edited by Mahamahopadhyaya ParvatI 

Charana Tarkatlrtha, Introduction by Arthur Avalon ... 2 o 

Vol. VII. ShtlchakrasambhUra. — Edited by Kazi Dawasamdup. A 
Buddhist Tibetan Tantra. Foreword on the Vajrayana by Arthur 
Avalon— { out of ptfft ) 

Vol. VIII. Tantrardja ( Kadimata ). Part I. Commentary by Subhaga- 
nanda-natha. Edited by Mahamahopadhyaya ^Lak^mawa Shistrl 
This along with vol. XII gives a detailed account of Kadimata, one 
of three schools into which Shaktas of tne Shrlkula are divided. 
Full Summary ( 37 pages ) in English by Arthur Avalon ... 4 o 

Vol. IX. Karpuradi-stotra. The famous hymn to Kali by Mahakala. 
Text, with Introduction and Commentary containing the esoteric 
interpretation of the hymn by Vimalananda-Svaml. Translated 
by and with notes of Arthur Avalon .,. .«. ... 40 



[ a ] 



Vol. X. Kamakalavilasa. Commentary by Na/ananandanatha. Edited 
by Mahamahopadhyaya Sadashiva Mishra. Complete translation by 
and notes of Arthur Avalon. This is a poetic description by 
Pu«yanda of the unfolding of the Divine creative impulse ... 4 

Vol. XI. Kaulopanishad, Tripuramopanishad, Bhavanopanishad. Commen- 
taries on these and the Prayoga on the Bhavana by Bhaskararaya. 
Bahvrichopanishad, Arunopanishad, with Commentary ; Kdlikopan- 
ishad. Introduction by Arthur Avalon. Edited by Sltarama Shastrt. 
The Prayoga by Bhaskara shows how Upanis/zadik teachings can 
and ought to be imbibed ... ... ... ... 4 

Vol. XII. Tantraraja. Part II. Commentary by Subhaganandanatha. 
Edited by Mahamahopadhaya Sadashiva Mishra. Summary ( 74 
pages ) in English by Arthur Avalon. This part gives the philosophy 
of Tantrik rituals. It also contains a description of the four stages 
of uttered sound. The student of astronomy will find much of 
interest in Ch. 25. ... ... ... .:. 6 

Vol. XIII- MahanirvZna Tantra, with the Commentary of Hari- 
harananda Bharatl. Printed from Mss. of Raja Rammohun Roy... 7 

Vol. XIV. Kauldvallnirnaya. By Jnanananda Paramahamsa. A com- 
pilation from various original Tantras. It gives an account of the 
rituals of Kula Dharma and also contains an account of the three 
classes into which mankind is divided and other important parti- 
culars necessary for an adequate knowledge of the Sampradaya ... 4 

Vol. XV. Brahmasamhitd with the commentary of Jtva GosvamI and 
Vishnusahasranama with the commentary of Shamkaracharya, Both 
these are highly venerated by Vai.r£«avas. The Brahma Samhita 
was greatly valued by Shrl-Chaitanyadeva the founder of the present- 
day Bengal Vai^«avism. Jlva Gosvami wrote the commentary in 
compliance with the desire of Chaitanyadeva. These books show 
that there can be no conflict between the Vai^«ava Tantras and 
those of other schools 

Vols. XVI, XVII. Sharadatilaka Tantra : By Lak^mawadeshikendra. 
Commentary by Raghavabhatfa named Paddrthddarsha—mth a 
Summary ( 72 pages) in English. This is similar in character to the 
Prapanchasara. The text and the commentary which is very lucid 
and exhaustive will be of help for a proper understanding of also the 
Prapanchasara the language of which is at times rather involved. 
An alphabetical index of the verses is appended to the book ... 12 
Dr. Winternitz, in his History of Indian Literature, says : — 
"It is Sir John Woodroffe ( under the pseudonym of Arthur Avalon ) 
who by a series of essays and the publication of the most important 
Tantra texts has enabled us to form a just judgment and an 
objective historical idea of this relegion and^i'ts literature". 



t Hi 1 



WORKS ON TANTRA BY ARTHUR AYALON 

The Great Liberation. ( Mahanirva«atantra). A Translation from the 

Sanskrit, 2nd Ed. revised with copious additional notes ... 150 
Principles of Tantra ( Tantratattva ). Vols. I and II— ( out of print ) 

The Serpent power ( Shatchakranirupana ). A translatian of Vol. II 
Tantrik Texts with Introduction and copious notes by Arthur 

Avalon and colour plates of the Chakras. 3rd Ed. Contains the 

Text as in Vol. II Tantrik Texts ... ... ••• 20 o 

Wave of Bliss. ( Anandalahari ) 2nd Ed. ... ... ... 1 8 

Greatness of Shiva. ( Mahimnastava ). 2nd Ed. ... ... 1 8 

BY ARTHUR & ELLEN AVALON 

Hymns to the Goddess ( from the Tantras and the Stotras of Shangkar- 
acharya )— ( out of print ) 

WORKS BY SIR JOHN WOODROFFE 

Creation according to Tantra ... ... ... ... 1 o 

Shakti & Shakta. 3rd Ed. Studies in Kaula doctrine and ritual ... 128 

Garland of Letters. Studies in the Mantra Shastra ... ... 7 8 

Is India Civilised T 3rd Ed. ... ... ... a 8 

The Seed of Race. Thoughts on Education. 2nd Ed. ... ...10 

Bhdrata Shakti Addresses on Indian Culture 3rd Ed. ... ... 1 I 

The World as Power Reality ... ••• 20 

Ditto Life ... ... 2 o 

Ditto Mind ... ... 2 8 

With Prof. P. N. Mukhopadhyaya. 

Ditto Matter ... ... 2 8 

Ditto Causality ... ... 2 0 

Ditto Mahamaya ... ... 5 o 



TANTRIK TEXTS 



EMERALD PRIHTINC -WORKS 

9; Nanda Kumar Chaudhuri 2nd Lake, Calcutta. 



TANTRIK TEXTS 




ARTHUR AVALON 
VOL. XVI 

SliARA D ATI LA K ATA NTRAM 

PART. I. 
Chapters I— VII. 

Published for the 

AGAMANUSANDHANA SAMITI 



The Sanskrit Press Depository, 

30, Cormvallia Street, 




Edited by 



BY 



CALCUTTA. 



1933 



EMERALD PRINTING WORKS, 
CALCUTTA. 



INTRODUCTION. 



The text alone of this book was first published by 
Rasikamohana Cha^opadhyaya, who brought out so many 
Tantrik works, from Calcutta, in the Bengali year 1285 
( A. D. 1880 ), and it was printed in the Bengali character. 
Shortly thereafter Pandit Jlvananda Vidyasagara brought out 
an edition in Devanagara character. The first edition printed 
(in Benares) along with the commentary of Raghavabha//a was 
in the Samvat era 1953 ( A. D. 1886 ). This book was also 
published along with a commentary named Gu^/zarthadipika 
by Madhavabha^a in the Samvat era 194 1. This latter 
commentary is older than that of Raghavabha//a, for Raghava 
in some places cites it and controverts its interpretation. 
Raghava says that he wrote his commentary in the Samvat 
year 1551 (A D. 1484). ' 

The present edition is published in compliance with the 
desire of His Highness the late Maharajadhiraja Rameshwar 
Singh of Darbhanga, the President of the Agamanusandhana- 
samiti. His knowledge of, and reverence for, the Brahmanik 
scriptures were very great, and being a great admirer of 
Raghava's commentary he felt that a better presentment of the 
book was desirable. The Benares edition was evidently based 
on a single manuscript, and suffers in consequence. We have 
had the advantage of consulting the following manuscripts : — 

(1) Manuscript loaned by the Asiatic Society of Bengal 
through the courtesy of its erudite Secretary Mr. Johan 
van Manen, CLE. 

(2) Manuscript loaned by Kumar Sharat Kumara Roy, 
M.A., of Dighapatia, Founder and President of the Varendra 
Research Society, Rajshahi, Bengal. 

(3) A summary of Raghava's commentary presented to us 
by Rai Ishvari Prasad of Kaliyasthana, Patna. 

(4) A manuscript belonging to Pandit Amulya Chara«a 
Vidyabhuy^awa, a copy of which was obtained. 



2 



INTRODUCTION 



(5) A Press Copy of the first eight chapters of the book 
prepared by the late Pandit Satish Chandra Siddhantabhuj^arca. 

There are several other commentaries on the Sharada 
which have not been published. There is one such named 
Shabdartha-chintaroam in the Sanskrit College Library, 
Calcutta, by Premanidhi Pantha a well-known authority on 
Tantra Shastra. His wife Prawamanjarl wrote a commentary 
on the Tantraraja an abstruse Tantrik work published as 
Vols. VIII & XII of the present series. 

Nothing much about Lakj^ma«a Deshikendra the author 
of the Sharadatilaka is known. At the end of his book he says 
that his father was ShrikrisAna, his grand-father was Acharya 
Fandlta. and his great-grand-father was Mahabala. All of 
them, he says, were men of great piety and erudition and 
enjoyed great reputation for the same. We are not aware if 
he wrote any other book. Raghava places him on a very 
high pedestal and gives us the further information that 
Lak^mawa was the disciple of Utpalacharya and in the line 
of his Gurus are Utpalacharya, Somananda, Vasumat and 
ShrIka«Ma. He further says that Laks^mawa was impelled to 
write the book because of his compassion for men who wanted 
to know something about all the different forms of worship, but 
could not do so by reason of the voluminousness of the 
different Tantras, each of which dealt with a single form of 
worship, and also because of the abstruse character of the same. 
These Tantras the majority of men of his time were unable to 
master, as they were of limited intelligence and short-lived. 

Of Raghava we get the following particulars. His family 
belonged to Maharay^ra and the name of the village is 
Janasthana (Nasik). His grand-father was Rameshvara Bha#a 
and his father P^thvldhara. Both of them were famed for their 
great learning. P^'thvidhara migrated to Vara«asl ( Benares ) 
and died there. The son was instructed in and became a master 
of the Vedanta and all other forms of Nyaya, Bha#anaya, 
Gawita (Mathematics) in all its forms, Sahitya (Belles Lettres), 
Ayurveda, the Kalas ( Fine Arts ), Kamashastra ( Science of 



Introduction 



3 



Love) and Artha-shastra ( Science of Polity and Political 
Government ). He had a profound knowledge of the Vedas, 
and was proficient in vocal and instrumental music. The 
commentary bears ample testimony to the many-sidedness and 
the encyclopaedic nature of his learning. He is the author, 
among others, of a commentary on the Lilavati and on 
Kalidasa's Shakuntala. The commentary on the Sharada 
gives an adequate idea of not merely the greatness of the 
spiritual culture of India but shows the great progress that had 
been made in every sphere of human activity. In expounding 
the text he has cited passages not from Mantrashastra alone, 
but has drawn his materials from mathematical and astro- 
nomical works, the Ayurveda, the Vedas and the Upani^ads, 
the Purawas and the Samhitas, the Shrauta Sutras and the 
GWhya Sutras, the Brahmawas and the Shulvashastras, the 
Darshanas, the Chhandas, the Pancharatras, and a whole host 
of other authorities named and unnamed. 

The Prapanchasara is one of the books most frequently 
cited in support of his own interpretations, more so when 
he differs from that of other people ; and not merely has 
the text of the Prapanchasara been utilised for the purpose but 
in several places Padmapadacharya's commentary thereon has 
also been cited as authority. In the majority of instances a 
text from the Prapanchasara has been cited as that of the great 
Acharya, the expression being always in the honorific plural. 
Padmapada's name is also cited in the plural number. This is 
almost conclusive evidence that the Prapanchasara is the work 
of the great monist Shamkaracharya. There is a tendency 
among some scholars to cast a doubt about the authorship of 
the Prapanchasara. But in the face of the testimony of 
Raghavabha^a and other eminent commentatators such as 
Bhaskararaya, Laks^mldhara, NllakantAa. and others, it is hard 
to agree with them. 

Both the Prapanchasara and the Sharadatilaka contain 
descriptive, accounts of the various aspects of the Brahmanik 
faith prevalent in India, and in both works the different forms 



4 



INTRODUCTION 



of faith are dealt with in a manner which shows a complete 
freedom from bias, a characteristic which is peculiarly that of 
Brahmanik India. That is so because they recognise that all 
the different forms of faith in the world lead to one goal, as it 
has been beautifully put by Puj^padanta in his Mahimna-stotra 
( see Arthur Avalon's 'Greatness of Shiva' ). 

It is perhaps not known that the Guru if he is wise, very 
seldom, if ever, initiates the disciple into his own form of 
worship. A disciple is initiated into that form alone for 
which he is competent. He is not even initiated into 
the form which was that of his ancestors. It is held that 
the man who has attained Siddhi in one particular form of 
worship becomes an adept in every other form and is able 
to understand fully these other forms. Shamkaracharya, for 
instance, was a Vals/mava. • but his soul-stirring hymn to the 
Devi in the eleventh chapter of the Prapanchasara would lead 
any one to believe that he was a Shakta. His hymns to other 
aspects of the Supreme Brahman such as Shiva and others are 
just as soulfully worded. It is on this account that one 
belonging to the Brahmanik faith is enjoined not to speak 
slightingly of any other Shastra. We have become accustomed 
these days to hear of the various forms of worship being in 
conflict with one another. But in reality there is no conflict. 
It is only in the early stages of Sadhana, during, so to say, the 
period of probation, that the Sadhakas of the different forms 
of faith devote themselves exclusively to the forms into which 
they have been severally initiated. Ignorance of this and 
similar facts has in many instances led to very disastrous and 
discreditable results on the part of our present-day "scientific" 
researchers into Indian philosophy and culture generally. 

The Sharadatilaka is divided into 25 Chapters, twentyfive 
being the number of the Samkhyan Tattvas. The first chapter, 
says Raghava (under verse 87 Chapter XXV), is Prakmi as it 
deals with Creation. The twenty-three Chapters which follow 
demonstrate Prakmi-Vikn'ti, and the last chapter which is 
devoted to Yoga demonstrates Purus^a which is beyond 



INTRODUCTION 



5 



Prakmi and Vikf/ti. It may incidentally be noted that the 
Prapanchasara as also the Tantraraja are divided into thirty-six 
Chapters which is the number of the Shaiva Tattvas. 

CHAPTER I. 

The first verse of the Sharada is an adoration of the 
Supreme Being, Who is named Maha^. This Maha^ may 
be interpreted to mean the Supreme in either Its Male or 
Female aspect. This is dealt in detail in Chapters XXIII 
and XXV. Its body is ever-enduring Bliss. By the fifty 
letters of the Alphabet which are constantly emanating 
from that Maha^, is this universe of moving and motionless 
objects, of sound and the meaning thereof, pervaded. Men 
who are masters of the Vedanta call It Shabda- Brahman 
which is the inner Chaitanya ( stress towards particu- 
larized conciousness ) which abides in all. The moon adorns 
Its forehead, and It is the Lord of Speech. The verse as it 
stands, it will be noted, refers to the Maha^ (Radiant Energy) 
in the neuter gender. Raghava shows how this can be in- 
terpreted to apply either to Shiva or Shakti. In doing so, he 
also shows how the Shiva and the Shakti aspects are intimately 
connected with one another. The connection is that of 
A-vinabhava, i. e., that the one cannot be without the other, 
like heat and fire, a word and its meaning, and so forth. This 
Chapter, as has already been stated, deals with Creation. From 
this, ascending step by step, the Sadhaka reaches to an appre- 
hension of the formless and attributeless Brahman, the first 
glimpse of which is given in Chapter 23 and which is more 
fully dealt with in Chapter 25 and of which it is said that any 
expressions we use with regard to it are merely indicative 
(Laky^aka) and not attributive (Vachaka). Raghava discusses 
how this attributeless Maha^, as associated with Shakti, is 
competent to create. 

Verse 2 is an adoration of the consort of the Maha^ of the 
first verse. The third verse is an adoration of the Gurus. 



6 



INTRODUCTION 



Raghava cites texts which say that the Guru is not to be 
looked upon as a mortal. He who does so can never 
attain Siddhi by the repetition of Mantras and worship of 
Devatas. The reason for this is that the human Guru is 
but the channel through whom Grace descends, and is the 
material embodiment of the supreme Shiva or Brahman who 
is the Guru. Raghava cites texts from Shruti, Smnti and 
Agama which show the necessity of a Guru, 

In verses 4 and 5 the Author says that he shall in 
this book give the essential parts of the Tantras which 
are helpful in the attainment of the fourfold aims of 
human existence, viz., Dharma, Artha, Kama and Mok^a. 
He also speaks of the Creation of the Word and of the 
Meaning thereof, and of Muni, Chhanda^, Devata and the 
rules relating to Yantras and Mantras. The word Sharada 
is capable of different interpretations. One of these is 
She who grants the fruit of one's Karma and at the same 
time destroys the same as Chit-shakti and leads to Libera- 
tion. He defines the Muni of a Mantra to mean the sage 
who discovered the Mantra. Chhanda^ is that which envelops 
and thereby protects the Deva who is concealed therein. 
Devata is that which is revealed by the Mantra. The Prayoga 
of a Mantra is the use of it, according to the injunction of the 
Shastras, for the attainment of Dharma, Artha, Kama and 
Moky^a. He next cites texts from Ar^eya Brahmawa, 
Katyayana Shrauta-sutra and Yajnavalkya Smnti which speak 
of the absolute necessity for a person practising a Mantra of 
knowing these. All these however, says Raghavabha^a, are 
for those who worship Devatas in their gross form. He then 
quotes some verses from the Tantraraja ( Chapter 35 ) which 
say that one's own Atma. is the Devata. It pervades the 
universe. Nyasa, Japa, Puja, Homa and other rites are useful 
for the realisation of this. The author next proceeds to 
describe creation - this has been dealt with by Sir John 
Woodroffe in his paper 'Creation in the Tantra', which has 
been reprinted in his book 'Shakti and Shakta'. 



INTRODUCTION 



7 



Up to verse 1 3 the author speaks of creative Sound in its 
Para state, and this is followed by a description of the work- 
ings of PashyantI and Madhyama. 

Having spoken of Shiva in Its two-fold aspect of Nir- 
gu#a ( Attributeless ) and Sa-gu«a ( Endowed with attributes ) 
and of the manifestation of Shakti, Nada and Bindu, 
and of the emanation of Bindu, Nada and Blja from the first 
Bindu, the author proceeds to say that from the second Bindu 
originated Raudrl and from Nada originated JyesAfAa and from 
Blja originated Varna and from these three emanated Rudra, 
Brahma and VisAnu. They are respectively J nana ( wisdom ), 
Ichchha ( will ), Kriya ( action ) and correspond with Vahni 
( Fire ), Indu ( Moon ), Arka ( Sun ). When the first Bindu 
bursts and divides itself into two, there arises a volume of 
sound in which the letters of the alphabet are indiscernible. 
This sound is Shabda-Brahman. Some define Shabda-Brahman 
to mean mere external spoken sound ; others speak of it as 
inner sound ( Antara-Shabda ). Both these interpretations are 
erroneous ; for Shabda-Brahman, says LaksAmam, is not some- 
thing inert ( Jarfa ) but is the Chaitanya in all beings, 4. e. it is 
the stress towards articulate sound. This is the Para stage of 
Sound. This Shabda-Brahman, it is said in verse 14, assumes 
the form of Ku«dall and manifests itself in the form of letters 
in all animate creatures. 

In verses 15 and 16 it is said that from Sharnbhu who is 
Bindu ( Bindvatma ) and one with Kala ( Kalatma ) and 
co-eval with Kala ( Time ) originated Sadashiva who is the 
allpervading witness of the world. From Sadashiva emanated 
Tsha, from him Rudra, then YisAnu and then Brahma. 
Raghava says that the eternalness ascribed to Prak^zti and 
Kala is Apeky^aka ( consequential ). 

Puru^a alone is by his very nature eternal, for when every 
thing disappears, Puruy/za endures. Raghava cites a text (which 
also occurs in Kramadlpika which is a Vai^«ava work) wherein 
the process of dissolution is described. In verse 17 the author 
begins to speak of the creation of the Tattvas and says that when 



8 



INTRODUCTION 



there is a change in the unmanifest Prakmi — the Supreme 
Substance and the root of all— there emanates therefrom Mahat- 
tattva which is the aggregate of the three Gu«as (Sattva, Rajas 
and Tamas) and is one with Buddhi, Ahamkara and Chitta. 
The Shaivas identify Mahat-tattva with Buddhi-tattva. The 
Ahamkara here spoken of is of three kinds, viz,, Vaikarika, 
Taijasa and Bhutadi. From the first which is Sattvika emanate 
the ten Devas, viz., Dik ( Space, Ether \ Vata ( Air ), Arka 
( Sun ), Prachetas ( Varuraa, Water ), the Ashvins ( Herbs ), 
Vahni ( Fire ), Indra ( Ruler), Upendra ( Vi^«u, Protective 
principle ), Mitra ( Sun ) and Ka ( Brahma, Creative principle ). 
From Taijasa Ahamkara which is Rajasika emanate besides 
Manas, the ten organs of sense, namely, five of perception and 
five of action. And from Bhutadi Ahamkara which is Tamasika 
originated the five elements, viz. Ether, Air, Fire, Water and 
Earth in the order of the Tanmatras which first originated. 
From Sound (Shabda-tanmatra) originated Ether ; from Touch 
( Sparsha-tanmatra ), Air ; from Form ( Rupa-tanmatra ), 
Fire ; from Liquidity (Rasa-tanmatra), Water ; and from Smell 
( Gandha-tanmatra ), Earth. The text proceeds to say that 
Ether is transparent ; Air is black ; Fire, red ; Water, white ; 
Earth, yellow. The region of Ether is circular, that of Air is 
hexagonal, of Fire is triangular, of Water is of the form of a 
half-moon with a lotus therein and that of Earth is square in 
shape. These have been fully dealt with in the 'Serpent 
Power' for the English reader. In the Devl-bhagavata, ( Book 
3 chapter 4 ), these have been described in greater detail and in 
a popular form ; and though there is some difference in minor 
particulars, a study of that will greatly help in understanding 
the scheme. The great commentator Nllaka«^a in commen- 
ting on the text of the Devi-bhagavata has cited these verses 
from the Sharada. 

Verses 25 and 26 say that the regions or MaWalas 
of the five Bhutas contain the letters which belong to the 
different Bhutas. It may be noted here that the letters are 
classified into five classes according to the number of the 



INTRODUCTION 



9 



Bhutas. This is described in greater detail in Chapter VI. It 
is here also stated that the five Bhutas originate from the five 
Kalas, — Nivrttti, Pratfc^Ma, Vidya, Shanti and Shantyatita 
which in their turn have* originated from Nada. 

Verse 27 says that this universe of moving and motionless 
objects is composed of the five Bhutas. Motionless objects are 
divided into countless forms such as mountains, trees and 
the like. Moving objects (V. 28 ) are of three kinds, viz., 
(1) Moisture-born ( Sveda-ja ), (2) Egg-born ( A»dfe-ja ) and 
(3) Womb-born ( Jarayu-ja ). Moisture produces worms and 
the like, from eggs are born serpents and the like, and from 
the womb ( V. 29 ) are born human beings and the like. 

Then the text goes on describing how out of the union of 
man and woman conception takes place and explains the cause 
of the birth of a male, female and hermaphrodite. In verse 
31 it is said that some disembodied soul bound by its own 
actions ( Karma ) enters into the foetus and animates it. 

In this connection Raghava cites another text which des- 
cribes the birth of a tree from its seed, the process being 
somewhat similar to Maithuna Srisht'x. 

Verses 32 to 38 describe the gradual growth, day after day, 
month after month, of this foetus ; how from a tiny 
gelatinous lump it grows into full human shape with all its 
senses. Raghava cites among others a text from Adhyatma- 
viveka which describes this process of growth and says that 
the Ojo-dhatu ( Ojas ) comes into the foetus in the eighth 
month and is then in a constant state of restlessness, now 
moving into the mother, now returning to the child. This 
Ojas is of a transparent yellowish red ( Shuddham a-pita- 
raktam ), and is the immediate cause ( Nimitta ) of vitality. 

In verse 39 the author says that the body born partakes 
of the nature of Fire and Moon or the Sun and the Moon. 
The right side is Sun, the left side is Moon. In verse 40, 
the text speaks of the principal Naafe and in Verse 43 
it says that the Naate are countless. Verse 44 speaks of the 
ten airs, viz., Pra«a, Apana, Samana, Vyana and Udana ; 



IO 



INTRODUCTION 



also Naga, Kurma, KWkara, Devadatta and Dhananjaya. 
Raghava says that according to some there are fourteen 
Vayus ( airs ), the names of the other four being Vairambha«a, 
Pradyota, Prakn'ta and Sthanamukhya. They function in 
different ways in the body and are named accordingly. The 
names of the ten- Fires are in the same way given by Raghava 
and they are, he says, named differently by different authors. 

In verse 47 it is said that the nerves ( Snayu ), bones 
( Asthi ) and marrow ( Majja ) are derived from the father ; 
and the skin ( Tvak ), flesh ( Mangsa ) and blood ( Asra ) 
from the mother. Raghava cites an authority who differs 
from this view. Verses 48 and 49 describe how the child 
remains in the womb and its birth. 

The text proceeds to say ( Vv. 51 — 57 ) that thereafter 
KuwaklinI Shakti who is Chaitanya-rupa ( Consciousness-em- 
bodied ), all-pervading and lightning-like, who is in all Tattvas 
and all Devas, subtler than the subtle and is Shabda- Brahman, 
manifests herself in the child at the time of its birth. 

The text then proceeds to describe ( Vv. 58-107 ) how 
Ku«dalinl is in the Mantras, Yantras arid every thing else. 
Verses 108 and 109 say that Ku»dalinl who is Shabda- 
Brahman and all-pervading brings forth Shakti, then Dhvani, 
therefrom Nada, Nirodhika, Ardhendu, Bindu, one from the 
other. From Bindu comes Para sound and thereafter PashyantI, 
Madhyama and Vaikharl sounds. Raghava, in commenting on 
these, cites texts from the Tantraraja ( Ch. XXV L ) which 
describe the process by which Para changes into PashyantI, 
PashyantI into Madhyama and this last into Vaikharl. He also 
quotes from the fiigveda. ( 1,164,45 ) which shows thajt the 
three different stages preceding articulate sound are recognised 
in Shruti also. In verse 112 it is said that Nirodhika is 
Fire, Ardhendu ( Half-moon ) is Moon and Arka ( Sun ) is 
the union of the two ; as the letters originated from Bindu, 
they therefore partake of the nature of Shiva and Shakti, 
because the Sun is both Shiva and Shakti. 



INTRODUCTION 



CHAPTER II. 

In this chapter the author speaks of the Vaikhari SrtsM, 
i. e. creation manifest as the spoken word. The letters of 
the alphabet, it is said ( Vv. 1-6 ), are pushed along the 
channel of the Su^umna and articulated with the help of the 
throat and other vocal organs. Of these articulate letters the 
vowels are called lunar ( Saumya ), and the consonants solar 
(Saura) and the Vyapakas, letters from Ya ( g ) to K^a ( <?j ), 
are fiery ( Agneya ). There are 16 vowels, 25 consonants and 
10 Vyapakas. Of the consonants 24 are the 24 Tattvas, the 
letter M (jt) being the Puru^a. The first of each couple of 
vowels is short and the second is long. The four vowels in 
the middle ( i. e. 7th, 8th, 9th and 10th ) are neuter. 

In verse 8 it is said that without the vowels the consonants 
can not be articulated, It is on this account that the letters 
are called united Shiva and Shakti (Shiva-Shakti-maya). The 
vowel which helps the articulation being Shakti ( power ) and 
the portion articulated being Shiva. The attention of the 
reader is drawn to V. 1. of the famous poem by Shamkara- 
charya called the Ananda-lahari ( The Wave of Bliss ). In 
verses 9 and 10 it is said that as the letters of the alphabet 
have originated from the Bindu from which the five Bhutas 
( Elements ) have emanated, the letters fall under five heads, 
and belong to one or other of the five Elements. The 
commentary says A (?r), A (^n), E (q), Ka (qf), Cha (^), 7a 
(j), Ta (n), Pa (q), Ya (3), Sfa (*), are aerial ; I (?), T (%), 
Ai Kha (^), Chha ($), Tfa (3), Tha (*), Pha (qy), Ra 
Ks&a. fa) are igneous, and so forth. The letters are again 
classified as Lunar, Fiery, Solar ; the 16 vowels are lunar ; 
the twenty-four consonants ( Sparsha ) which are to be coupled 
as Ka-Bha, ( qr-w ), Kha-Ba ( ) and so forth are solar, 
and the ten Vyapaka letters are fiery. 

. The names of the 38 Kalas of the letters are given in 
verses 12-16. The Tara or Prawava ( Omkara ) has fifty 
Kalas and the names of these are given in verses 17-28. 



12 



INTRODUCTION 



Verses 29-35 S lve fi^y names of Rudra which corres- 
pond with the fifty letters of the alphabet. Verses 36 to 44 
give the names of the Shaktis of the fifty Rudras. 

Verses 45 to 56 give the names of the fifty aspects of 
Vi^«u and their respective Shaktis. These also correspond 
with and are forms of the fifty letters. 

Verse 57 says that all Mantras are composed of the MatWka 
letters and Mantras are either masculine, feminine or neuter. 
Verse 59 says those which end with Hung or Pha* are 
masculine, those ending with Svaha are feminine and the 
neuters end with Nama^. The text proceeds to say how and 
when the Mantras awaken, and verses 64 to no give an 
account of the various defects that may be in different 
Mantras. Verse m says that the these defects can be 
cured by Yoni-mudra ; but, in the case of those who cannot do 
Yoni-mudra, the same can be cured by a process described in 
verses 11 2-1 23. 

Verses 124-140 of the Chapter contain rules regarding 
Japa of one's Mantra. There are in this connection 
injunctions about food, the place where Japa should be 
done, and the necessity of getting initiated by a good 
Guru is emphasised. A good Guru is defined ( Vv. 141 -144 ) 
to be a man pure of birth, himself of a pure disposition 
having his senses controlled. He should know the true 
meaning of the Agamas and all Shastras, and be always 
doing good to others, as also Japa, Puja, Dhyana, Homa. 
His mind is always peaceful and he has the power of granting 
favours. He knows the Vedic teachings, is competent in Yoga 
and is charming like a Deva. Raghava has cited a number 
of authorities and illustrations in amplifying this. The charac- 
teristics of a good disciple are also given ( Vv. 145-152 ). He 
should be of good parentage, of a guileless disposition, be a 
seeker of the fourfold aims of human existence, read in the 
Vedas, intelligent, his animal desires completely controlled, 
always kind towards all animals, possessed of faith in the 
existence of the next world. He does not associate with the 



INTRODUCTION 



*3 



non-believer, is assiduous in his duties, alert in the discharge 
of his duties towards his parents, not conscious of the pride of 
birth, wealth and learning in the presence of his Guru, willing 
to sacrifice his own interests in the discharge of his duties to- 
wards the Guru, and ever ready to serve the Guru as a servant. 

Verse 153 speaks of the time it usually takes to ascertain 
the fitfless of the disciple. It takes one year in the case of a 
Brahma»a, two years in the case of a K^atriya, three in 
the case of a Vaishya and four for a Shudra, to ascertain the 
candidate's competency for initiation. 

CHAPTER III. 

Speaks of the rites which should be performed before 
initiation. These are Vastu-yaga ( worship of the Devatas 
Brahma and others who keep the Rak^asa ( demon ) Vastu 
down ), selection of the site for the erection of a Ma«dapa and 
erection of the same, Homa, the making of the Vedi and 
directions regarding drawing a Yantra on the Vedi and rites 
connected therewith. Raghava has added long notes to what 
is said by Laks^mawa. Great stress is laid on the dimensional 
accuracy o< the Vedi, the Kunda. and of everything else used 
in the different rites which have to be done. The calculations 
are given in detail. 

CHAPTER IV. 

Deals with initiation in all its different aspects. The word 
Dlky^a ( initiation ) means that which imparts Divya-jnana 
( knowledge which illumes ) and causes K^aya ( destruction ) 
of evil. Verse 3 speaks of four kinds of Dikr^a, namely, 
KriyavatI, Varwamayl, Kala and Vedha. The first of these, if 
the occasion demands it, may be an elaborate ritualistic process. 
It is described in this chapter. The disciple on initiation is 
instructed to meditate on the oneness of the Mantra, the 
Devata and the Guru. When he has realised this he has to 
advance further and experience the identity of his own Stma 
with these. The commentary gives details regarding bathing 



14 



INTRODUCTION 



and other preliminary rites. The whole of the chapter contains 
details of ritual which should be performed on the first day. 
The process by which the mind and body of the disciple is 
made fit to receive initiation is shortly described. Apart from 
the importance of the text of the Sharada and the notes 
of the commentator for the ritualist, the student of religious 
psychology will find therein much of interest to him. A careful 
study will convince any fair-minded critic that these are not 
meaningless mummery but have a solid and reasonable 
foundation. 

CHAPTER V. 

Continues the same subject and begins with injunctions 
relating to consecration of Fire for the purpose of Homa. 
Raghava cites texts which say that when the purificatory rites 
are being done the Guru meditates on the form of the 
Brahman adopted for his Sadhana. 

With verse 75 begin the rites to be performed on the 
second day when Homa is to be done. Verse 77 says that 
after transferring the Chaitanya of the Shi^ya into himself and 
uniting it with his own Chaitanya, the Guru should effect a 
purification of the six Adhvas, namely, Kala, Tattva, Bhuvana, 
Var#a, Pada and Mantra. The Kalas are NivWtti, PratijAMa, 
Vidya, Shanti and Shantyatlta named in Chapter I. verse 26. 
The Tattvas are 36 according to the Shaivas, 32 according 
to the Vai^«avas, 24 according to the Maitras ( Samkhya ). 
The Shaiva Tattvas are classed under three heads, namely, 
Pure, Pure-Impure and Impure. The PrakWti Tattvas are 
ten. The Tattvas of Tripura are seven. The names o( the 
five different classes of Tattvas are given in verses 81 -89. 
By Bhuvanadhva is meant, according to Raghava, the 
Etherial, the Aerial, the Igneous, the Aquatic and the Terres- 
trial regions. The Vayaviya Samhita says the Bhuvanas are 
die different stages of Sadhana beginning with the Muladhara 
ending with Unman! when the mind is merged in the object 
of adoration. The Vargas are the Matn'ka letters. By 



INTRODUCTION 



Mantradhva all the Mantras are meant. Padas are words 
formed by the combination of ^the letters. Verses 92 95 
describe the process of the purification of the Adhvas. The 
word Adhva means a pathway ; here, these six are the six 
paths which lead to Brahman-experience, 

Verse 96 says that the Guru first transfers his own 
Chaitanya into the Shi^ya. This is followed by an account 
of some further rites. In verse 110 it is said that the Guru 
♦ should worship his own Devata who is placed in the tody of 
the Shi^ya and then (V. 1 1 1 ) communicate the Vidya 
( Mantra ) to the disciple. The ShLs^ya then mentally recites 
the Mantra meditating on the oneness of the Guru, the Mantra 
and the Devata and thereafter bows to the Guru lying flat on 
the ground and placing the feet of the Guru on his head and 
offers up to the Guru his own body and all he is possessed of. 
Raghava here gives a detailed account of all that is done, 
citing texts from different Shastras. Other rites connected 
with KriyavatI Dlki^a end with verse 115. 

Verses 116-120 contain rules relating to Var#amayi 
Dlky^a. 

Verses 121 to 126 speak of Kalavatl and verses 127-139 
of Vedhamayi Diky^a. 

By Vedha Dik^a, it is said, the disciple attains the 
perfection of Shiva immediately on initiation. These three 
forms of initiation are not for men of average competency. 
Var«a DlkrM is for persons who are above the average. 
Kalavati is for those of a still higher competency and 
Vedhamayi is for the highest class of aspirants. In the com- 
mentary it is stated that Utpalacharya the Guru of Lakj^ma«a 
was initiated in this way by Somanandacharya. He gives 
another instance of initiation in this way, that of ShivasvamI 
by Cha#afeshvaracharya. The process is briefly described in 
verses 127 to 139. This is followed by injunctions relating 
to Homa after initiation. The commentator cites a text 
which says that there are, besides the above four, ten other 
kinds of initiation which go by the generic name of A«avl. 



»6 



INTRODUCTION 



CHAPTER VI. 

Deals with the Devi Mat^'ka. or Sarasvati whose body is 
composed of the Letters of the Alphabet. The letters taken 
together form a Mantra of which the Riski is Brahma, the 
Chhanda^ is Gayatrl and Sarasvati, the Devata. It should 
be noted that whenever a Mantra is mentioned the name 
of its Muni or Riski is first given, then the ChhandaA and then 
the Devata. 

In the Prapanchsara ( Ch. VII. ) also, the Sadhana of the 
Devi Sarasvati is first introduced as she is the Queen of the 
Letters and Awakener of all knowledge ( Bodha-dlpika ). 

Verse 4 gives the Dhyana of Sarasvati. Her body is 
composed of the said letters and on her forehead is a fragment 
of the Moon. Her breasts are large and high. She is 
carrying in each of her ( four ) hands ( 1 ) the gesture of 
Jnana-mudra, ( 2 ) a rosary of Rudraky/fca, ( 3 ) a jar full of 
nectar and ( 4 ) the gesture of Pustaka-mudra. She is white 
and has three eyes.- * ' 

Raghava here quotes a long passage from the Tantrantara 
giving Dhyanas of all the different letters. Verses 5-8 contain 
rules relating to Nyasa of the letters and verse 9 speaks of 
Purashchara»a. It is by Purashchara«a that the Sadhaka 
becomes an adept in the Mantra. The Mantra has to be 
repeated in manner enjoined a specified number of times 
followed by Homa and other rites. Verse 10 gives the 
Yantra. This is followed by rules relating to her rituals with 
the names of her attendant Shaktis and their Dhyanas. These 
Shaktis are mostly the intellectual powers personified. After 
ritualistic worship, Nyasa ( verses 28, 29 ) should be done in 
three ways, namely, Srishtx ( creative ), Sthiti ( continuing ), 
and Samhara ( withdrawing ). After Sthiti Nyasa she should 
be meditated upon along with her consort. The Dhyana is 
given in verse 30. After Samhara Nyasa she is to be again 
meditated upon as the Queen of the Letters. The Dhyana is 
given in verse 33. 



INTRODUCTION 



17 



Verses 34-36 contain the rules relating to Nyasa and 
worship. She should next be meditated upon in her aspect of 
Sharada. The Dhyana is given in verse 37. Verses 38-40 
describe her ritualistic Nyasa which is amplified in the 
commentary. Verse 41 gives the Dhyana of Ardhanarishvara. 
Verse 45 gives a Dhyana of united Vi^»u and Lakf^mi, like 
Ardhanarishvara is of Shiva and his consort. Verse 49 
gives another Dhyana of the Devi as the Queen of the 
Universe. Verse 53 gives a Dhyana of Laky/fcml. 

Verse 57 gives a Dhyana of the Devi as the Mother of All, 
( Sakalajanani ). The Poet Kalldasa has a beautiful hymn to 
this aspect which is not much known. 

Verse 61 contains a Dhyana of the Devi as having eight 
hands. 

Verse 67 contains a Dhyana of Brahman as the trans- 
cedent Tejas, immeasurable, the one root of the Universe, 
pervading all creation as Sat and Chit, imperishable, a mass of 
nectar. The five Mantras, the first of which is the Pranava 
point towards him. This is the Prapancha-yaga-murti. 

Verses 68-82 describe Prapancha-yaga which begins with a 
particular form of Nyasa. Raghava here cites a text which 
gives the names of the Risln and Chhanda^ of each of the 
MaWka letters. It is partially corrupt and the different 
manuscripts have not been of any great help. 

Verses 84-86 speak of the wonderful properties of B rah ml 
( a kind of bitter herb ) and how it helps in the perfection 
of the intellectual powers as also clear enunciation. This 
vegetable has been spoken of in several other places in this 
book. The rest of the chapter gives ritualistic rules. 

CHAPTER VII. 

Verses 2 to 4 give the Bhutalipi Mantra. It is made up of 
the five short vowels, the four compound ( Sandhi ) vowels, 
the eight Vyapaka letters, and the twentyfive Sparsha ( con- 
sonant ) letters. These letters are divided into nine groups 
and arranged in an order described in the text. Verse 5 says 



INTRODUCTION 



that the letters of the Bhutas ( Elements ), Ether, Air and 
others, are in these nine groups, only there is no Earth-letter 
in the second and in the ninth group there is neither a Water- 
letter nor an Earth-letter. The verses which follow give the 
Rishis and the Devatas of the nine groups ( Vargas ). 
Var«eshvarl ( Queen of the Letters ) is the Devata of the 
Mantra. This is another aspect of the Devi Sarasvatl. The 
letters are looked at in a different way. The Tantra Shastra 
attaches great importance to the letters, as all Mantras are 
made up of the letters. 

Verses 9 to 14 describe the Tree of Letters ( Lipitaru ) 
under which the Devi is seated. The tree is made up of the 
letters. Parasamvit is its seed. Bindu and Nada are its two 
tap-roots. Its branches which are the Earth-letters are spread 
in all directions ; its leaves which are the Water-letters cover 
the three worlds ( upper, middle and lower ) ; its sprouts 
which are the Fire-letters are bright like gems ; the Air- 
letters are its flowers and illumine its body ; the Ether-letters 
are its fruits which are the refuge of all creatures. The honey 
of heavenly nectar from the tree is sprinkling the Devi. The 
Vedas, the Agamas and the like add to its height and beauty. 
It is Shiva and Shakti. The three worlds find shelter under it. 
The Munis by the help of this get what they desire. 

Verse 1 5 gives the Dhyana of the Devi. She is like ( of 
the effulgence of ) ten million stainless moons. Her breasts 
are large and high. On Her head is the crescent moon. Her 
three eyes are half-closed by reason of the libations of nectar of 
which she has partaken. In each of her four hands she is 
carrying the gesture of granting boons, a rosary, the gesture 
of Jnana and a skull. She is in the pride of youth. Her 
body is composed of the Letters of the Alphabet. She is the 
Queen of Speech. 

Verses 16 to 52 contain rules relating to ritualistic worship 
of the Devi in the course of which the names of the attendant 
Devatas and the articles of worship are enumerated. 

Verse 53 describes Viyat Yantra ( Yantra of Ether ). 



INTRODUCTION 



19 



Verse 55 describes the Vayaviya Yantra ( Yantra of Air ). 
Verses 57-59 describe the Agneya Yantra ( Yantra of Fire ). 
Verse 60 describes Varu#a Yantra ( Yantra of Varu«a : the 
Deva of Water ) and Verse 62 describes Parthiva Yantra 
( Yantra of Earth ). These descriptions are in each case 
followed by a statement as to what the Yantras are useful for. 

Verse 65 contains the VagvadinI Mantra of ten letters. It 
grants the power of speech. Raghava here quotes a hymn 
by Shamkaracharya which is not traceable in his collected 
works. Verse 66 gives the names of the Rish\ t Chhanda/fc and 
Devata of the Mantra and directions about Nyasa. 

Verse 67 contains a Dhyana of the Devi of the Mantra. 
Verses 68-79 gi ve rules relating to Purashchararca and ritua- 
listic worship. This is the method followed in the case of 
almost every Mantra right through the book. That is, the 
Mantra is followed by the names of the Riski, the Chhanda/& 
and the Devata. This again is followed by the Dhyana 
of the Devata and thereafter are given the rules relating to 
Purashchara^a, worship and Prayoga. 

Verse 80 gives the Mantra of sixteen letters. Verse 82 
gives the Dhyana of the Devi of the Mantra and Verses 83-86, 
the rituals. 

Verse 87 gives the Mantra of eleven letters, verse 89, the 
Dhyana, verses 90-95, rituals. 

Verse 96 gives another Mantra of eleven letters, verse 98 
the Dhyana, verses 99-103, rituals. In the course of this the 
author advises the use of Brahmigh/'zta which is to be prepared 
in a way somewhat different from that described in the 
previous chapter. Verse 104 gives another Mantra, verse 
106, the Dhyana and verses 107-112 describe rituals. 

Verses 1 13-123 give rules of conduct of the worshipper of 
the Sarasvatl. The fruits and vegetables not to be eattrn are 
named. He should not eat anything stale or kept over-night. 
He should not chew pan ( betel leaf ) at night. He should 
not go with a woman during day time nor with one who is in 
her flowers. He should not look at a naked woman. He 



20 



INTRODUCTION 



should not cast aspersions on a woman. In the mornings he 
should remain silent and never at any time speak falsehood. 
He should not study on the 14th, 8th and 1st day of the lunar 
half month, nor on the day of an eclipse ( Solar or Lunar ), 
nor on the last day of the month. When explaining any thing 
he should be fully awake and not lazy, avoid yawning and 
not get angry, avoid spitting and touching any limbs below 
the waist. If a man, a snake, a cat, a frog, a mongoose or 
any other animal passes between him and his auditor he 
should stop. 

CHAPTER VIII. 

This chapter begins by saying, 'I shall now speak of the 
Mantras of Shri, which grant wealth and good fortune*. Verse 
2 gives a Mantra and 3 speaks of the Risk\, Chhanda^ and 
Devata and Nyasa. Verse 4 gives her Dhyana, which is as 
follows ; — 

I adore Shri. She is seated on a lotus. Her effulgence 
is like that of gold. She has a lustrous crown on her 
head. She is raimented in silk which shines over her rounded 
buttocks. In two of her hands she is holding two lotuses 
and with the other two is making the gestures of Vara 
( Boons-granting ) and Abhaya ( Fear-dispelling ). Four 
elephants resembling the Himalaya mountain are pouring 
nectar over her out of golden jars held in their uplifted trunks. 

The verses which follow ( 5-7 ) give the rules relating to 
Purashchara#a of the Mantra and- worship. Verses 8-19 give 
the names and description of her nine Shaktis, the Anga- 
devatas and so forth. Verses 20-29 speak of the benefit 
gained by her worship. 

Verse 30 gives another Mantra of Shri. Verse 31 gives 
the Dhyana of the Devi of this Mantra. It says : — 

I adore the beloved of Hari. She is seated on a lotus. 
She is lustrous like the.Tuby. In two of her lotus hands, she 
holds two lotuses and the other two are held in the gestures 
of Vara and Abhaya. Four large elephants of the colour of 



INTRODUCTION 



21 



snow are constantly pouring water out of jewelled jars held 
in their upifted trunk. She is the heavenly Parijata who 
grants all desires. 

Verses 32 and 33 give the rules of Purashchara«a whereby 
Siddhi is attained in the Mantra. 

Verses 34-37 give another Mantra and the names of the 
Riski, the Chhanda^ and the Devata as also the rules relating 
to Nyasa. Verse 38 gives the Dhyana of the Devi of this 
Mantra which is as follows : — 

May Kamala protect and nourish ye ! She is seated on a 
lotus and has a smiling face. In two of her lotus hands she 
is holding two lotuses and the other two are held in the gestures 
of Dana ( Vara ) and Abhaya. Her body is luminous like 
lightning. Over her large and high breasts are shining ropes 
of pearls. By her sidelong glances she is gladdening ( her 
consort ) Hari. 

Verses 39 44 give rules regarding Purashchara«a, articles 
of worship and so forth. 

Verses 45 to 52 give a fourth Mantra, the names of its 
Risht, Chhandaifc and so forth. Verse 53 says that after 
doing Nyasa, the Sadhaka is to meditate upon a beautiful 
garden described in detail in verses 53-71. Having meditated 
upon this garden he should think of a beautiful Parijata tree in 
the middle of it ; and under it on a jewelled throne, he should 
meditate on Mahalak^ml seated thereon. The Dhyana, 
given in verses 74-88, is as follows :— 

Meditate on the Supreme Devata. She is the lustre of the 
of the rising sun, luminous with the crescent moon on her 
shining diadem and the garland she is wearing. She is decked 
with ornament set with gems. She is leaning forward as if 
with (the weight of ) her (heavy) breasts. In two of her Hands, 
she is holding two lotuses. In one of her other hands is held 
a sheaf of Shali paddy and in the other, the gem Kaustubha. 
Her face is illumined by her gracious smile. Her three eyes 
are like three fullblown lotuses. On her lotus feet are tinkling 
bells. The girdle round her waist is set with nine kinds 



11 



INtRODUcTlON 



of gems. Her stomacher studded with pearls, rubies and 
beryls is resting on her belly beautiful with its three folds 
( Trivali ). Her navel is beautiful like a whirlpool in the 
waters of the Jahnavi ( Ganga : the Ganges ). Her breasts 
are adorned with the paste of sandal, camphor and saffron. 
Ropes of large pearls, like drops from the rain clouds, 
adorn her. Her vestment is of silk. Her armlets of pure 
gold are studded with beryls and her wristlets of shining 
gold are studded with rubies. She is decked with rings set 
with rubies. Chains and collars of pure gold adorn her. 
Her neck resembling ( in contour ) the conchshell is adorned 
with various beautiful ornaments. Her gem-studded ear-orna- 
ments resemble the rising sun. Her beautiful lips are red 
like the hibiscus and coral. Her teeth are like the seeds of the 
pomegranate. Her face is like the stainless fullmoon. Her 
three beautiful eyes are shaped like the petals of the lotus. 
Her eyebrows excel in beauty the bow of Kandarpa ( Cupid's 
bow ). Her nose vanquishes the beauty of the Tila flower 
( sesamum ). Her forehead puts to shame the beauty of the 
half-moon and the Tilaka there, is fragrant with the fragrance 
of musk. Her lotus face is adorned by curls of hair like 
hungry black bees ( round a lotus ). Her hair is tied up with 
the flowers of the Parijata. The crown on her head is studded 
with priceless gems. She is the abode of charm and beauty 
and the source of all Greatness ( Tejas ). 

Verses 89-118 give the rules relating to Purashchara«a 
of her Mantra, Asana-mantra, names of the Parshvadevatas 
and other details relating to her worship. The verses which 
follow ( Vv. 1 19-140 ) speak of the Prayogas of her Mantra. 
Verses 141- 143 give her Yantra. 

Verses 144-145 give another Mantra of twentyseven letters. 
Verses 146-147 give the Nyasa of the Mantra. Verse 148 
gives the Dhyana : — 

Meditate always on the supreme beloved of SharngI 
( V'xsknu ). She is of the redness of vermillion and is seated 
on a lotus. She is the gem of the ocean of beauty. She is 



INTRODUCTION 



23 



adorned with a crown, armlets, garlands, ear-ornaments, waist- 
chains and the like. In one of her lotus-like hands is held 
the casket of wealth ( Vasu-patra ) in the other a looking glass 
and in the other two, are two lotuses. She is surrounded by 
her hand-maidens. 

Verses 149-159 give rules relating to Purashchara#a, the 
articles to be used in her worship, the names of the attendant 
Devatas and the fruit to be gained by her worship. 

Verse 160 speaks of the wellknown Vedik Shrlsiikta. It 
is to be noted that when Vedik /?zks are referred to they are 
rarely set down in the text. The commentator says that the 
Shrlsiikta which consists of the fifteen Rtks of the Bahvf/chas 
is wellknown and he quotes a long passage from the Tantran- 
tara which gives the rules relating thereto as also the 
Shriyantra. 

This, it is hoped, will remove the erroneous impression 
that the Vedas contain no trace of the worship of the female 
aspect of the Brahman. Later on other instances of this will 
be found in this book. 

Verse 161 to the end of the chapter lay down rules of 
conduct for the worshipper of Shri. It is said here that 
the Sadhaka who wants Shri should always be truthful. 
He should face the west when taking his meals. He should 
be gentle in his speech, and speak with a smiling countenance, 
and use scents and flowers. He should always be pure, sleep 
in a pure bed and with a young woman ( Tarum ) and 
with no one else. He should never eat when he has had oil 
rubbed over him. He should never rub turmeric on his face, 
nor sleep when he is impure in any way. He must not write 
anything on the ground. He must not eat salt or oil by 
itself. He must always be clean and avoid unclean food and 
so forth. 

The commentator quotes a passage from the Prapancha- 
sara ( Ch. XII. ) which also lays down similar injunctions. 



24 



INTRODUCTION 



CHAPTER IX. 

The second verse gives the Blja of Bhuvaneshvarl. Verse 
3 gives the names of the Risk\ t the Chhanda^ and the Devata 
of the Mantra. Verses 4-13 speak of Nyasa. It is said in 
verse 5, that the object of doing Nyasa is the attainment of 
Devatabhava. This means that the Sadhaka's mind becomes 
competent to receive things divine. The commentator cites 
a passage from the Prapanchasara ( Ch. X. ), showing Sham- 
karacharya's method of dealing with this particular class of 
Nyasa. 

Verse 14 gives the Dhyana of Bhuvaneshi. She is the 
lustre of the rising sun. The moon is on her diadem. Her 
breasts are high. She has three eyes and a smiling face. 
With two of her hands she is making the gestures of Vara 
and Abhaya and in the other two, are held an Angkusha 
and a Pasha. 

Verse 1 5 speaks of the Purashchara»a of her Mantra and 
Homa. Verses 16 and 17 describe her Yantra. Her nine 
PiMa Shaktis, named in verse 18, are Jaya, Vijaya, Ajita. 
Aparajita, Nitya, VilasinI, Doghdhri, Aghora, Mangala. 
Verse 19 gives her PiMa-mantra. In describing the mode of 
worship ( Vv. 22-32 ) it is said, among other things, that 
the following couples ( Mithunas ) are to be worshipped, vis, 
Gayatri and Brahma, Savitri and Vxshnu, Sarasvati and 
Rudra, Kuvera and Mahalaky^mi, Madana and Rati, Ga«esha 
( Vighnaraja ) and PusAii, his beloved. Each of these 
couples is described here. There should also be worshipped 
( Vv. 33-42 ) the two Nidhis ( Gems ) and the Angadevatas, 
namely, - Ananga-kusuma, Anangakusumatura, Ananga- 
madana, Ananga-madanatura, Bhuvana-pala, Gagana vega, 
Shashirekha and Gagana-rekha ; as also her sixteen others 
Shaktis, viz., Karali, Vikarall, Uma, Sarasvati, Shri, Durga, 
U^a, Lakj^mi, Shruti, Smnti, Dhmi, Shraddha, Medha, Mati, 
Kanti and Arya. The eight Mate's, Brahma#*' and others 
should also be worshipped. Her hand-maidens, Anangarupa 



INTRODUCTION 



25 



and others are also to be worshipped. Verses 43 to 50 describe 
rites for the attainment of worldly advantages. Verses 51-57 
describe five Yantras. 

Verse 58 gives a different Mantra. Verse 59 speaks of 
N yasa with the Mantra. Verse 60 gives the Dhyana of the 
Devi of the Mantra. In this Dhyana, the Devi is described 
as of the colour of vermilion. She has three eyes. On her 
head is a crown of rubies the brightness of which is enhanced 
by the lustre of the moon on her forehead. She has a smiling 
face and large breasts. She has two hands, in one of which 
she is holding a Chas/fcaka ( cup ) filled with gems and in the 
other a red lotus. Her feet are resting on a gem-studded jar. 
She is benign of aspect and is the mother of all. 

Verses 61-62 speak of Purashcharawa. 

Verse 63 says that by daily taking Brahml Glm'ta over 
which the Mantra has been said, the Sadhaka becomes, in the 
course of a year, a poet. The commentator describes how this 
Ghnta should be made. Ayurveda says that Ghma ( clarified 
butter ) preserves unimpaired the properties of herbs used in 
medicine. Verses 64-66 give other Prayogas. 

Verse 67 gives another Mantra. Verse 68 gives its Nyasa. 
Verse 69 gives the Dhyana of the Devi of the Mantra : — 

She is Shyama ( colour of gold ). The moon is on her 
forehead. With one hand she is making the gesture of Vara 
and with another hand she is holding a red lotus. In her third 
hand is a Cha^aka full of gems and with the fourth she is 
making th the gesure of Abhaya. Ropes of pearls shine over 
her large breasts. She has got three luminous eyes and is 
seated on a red lotus. She is the beloved of Hara. She is 
the adored of the Suras ( Devas or seekers of the Brahman ). 
She is eternal. 

Verses 70-79 describe her worship. 

Verse 80 gives another Mantra, its Riski, Nyasa and so 
forth. 

Verse 81 gives the Dhyana of the Devi of the Mantra -.— 
She is seated on a lotus. Two of her hands are held in 



26 



INTRODUCTION 



the gestures of Vara and Abhaya and in the other two she 
is holding an Angkusha and a Pasha. 

Verses 82-90 describe the mode of worship. 

Verses 91-94 describe the Gha^argala Yantra. 

Verse 95 gives a Mantra of sixteen letters. Verses 96*104 
describe how the Yantra is to be used and the benefits gained 
thereby. 

Verses 105-108 describe two other Yantras. 

CHAPTER X. 

In Verse i, it is said that the Devi Tvarita is so called 
because she grants fruits quickly. The Sanskrit word means 
"quickly". In support of this, the commentator quotes a 
verse from the Prapanchasara ( Ch. XIII. ) where the Sadhana 
of the Devi is described. The second line of verse 1 and 
verse 2 give the Mantra of 12 letters. Verse 3 gives the 
names of the Muni, Chhanda^ and so forth. 

Verse 4-6 speak of Nyasa. Verse 7 gives the Dhyana : — 

I adore the Devi KairatI who is Shyama and whose head 
is adorned by the tail-feathers of a peacock. She is raimented 
with leaves and ropes of red Gunja seeds rest on her large 
breasts. Eight great serpents adorn her ears, arms, waist 
and toes. She has three eyes and her hands are uplifted to 
grant boons and dispel fear. 

The commentator says that the serpents Ananta and 
Kulika, who are Vipras, the colour of fire and each possessed 
of a thousand hoods, are the ear-ornaments. The serpents 
Vasukl and Shangkhapala who are K^atriyas, yellow of colour 
each with 700 hoods, are the ornaments for the upper arm. 
Taky^aka and Mahapadma two other serpents who are 
Vaishyas, blue of colour, each with 500 hoods are the girdle. 
Padma and Karka/aka who are Shudras, white of colour, each 
with 300 hoods are the toe-ornaments. 

Verses 8-19 describe Purashchara«a of the Mantra and her 
worship, give the names of her attendant Devatas and 
describe how these latter are to be worshipped Verses 20-33 



INTRODUCTION 



#7 



describe Homa with different articles for the attainment of 
different ends, such as, Shanti ( Peace ), /fo'ddhi ( Prosperity ) 
and so forth. Verses 34 to 43 describe five different Yantras 
and speak of the benefits to be gained thereby. 

Verse 44 gives the Trika«/aki Mantra as also rules relating 
to Nyasa therewith. Verse 45 gives the Dhyana : — 

May the three-eyed Devi dispel all your fears ! She is 
blue below the navel, red below the neck and her face is 
white. She has four mouths with fierce fangs on the four sides 
of her belly and is terrific to behold. In her hands she is 
holding two lights ( Dlpa ), a conchshell and a Chakra. In 
her matted hair is the crescent moon. 

In verse 48 is given another Mantra of the Trika«/akl. 
Verse 49 speaks of the Purashcharawa of this Mantra and the 
fruits to be gained thereby. 

Verse 50 gives the Mantra of 1 5 letters of Nitya. Verse 
51 gives the Nyasa of this Mantra and verse 54 describes 
the place of her abode. She is seated there on a lotus placed 
on a throne. Her Dhyana is given in verse 55 : — 

Adore Nitya ! She has got the young moon on her fore- 
head. She is red and three-eyed, She is carrying a Pasha 
and an Angkusha, the wish-granting creeper and a skull and is 
playing on the melodious Vi#a. 

Verses 56 to 68 give the rules of Purashcharana, worship 
and other details. 

Verse 69 gives a Mantra of 1 2 letters and Verse 70 gives 
the rules relating to Nyasa. 

Verse 7 1 gives the Dhyana : — 

Meditate upon the wife of Shiva. She has got the half- 
moon on her forehead and is red of colour. Her raiment, 
ornament and decorations are all red. She has three eyes and 
is elated with wine. In her hands she is carrying a lotus, a 
Pasha ( noose ), Srmi ( goad ) and a skull filled with wine. 
She is the adored of the immortals. 

Verses 72-76 give rules of Purashchara#a and other rites. 

Verse 77 gives the Mantra of VajraprastariwI. It is of 



28 



INTRODUCTION 



twelve letters. Verses 78-79 name Risk\ t Chhanda^, Devata. 
Verse 80 gives her Dhyana : — 

We seek refuge in the mother who is seated on a lotus of 
twelve petals placed on a red boat in an ocean of blood. Her 
body is red ; on her red forehead is shining the crescent moon. 
She has three eyes and a smiling face. In her hands she is 
holding a pomegranate, an arrow, a noose, a goad, the bow of 
Madana (Deva of Love) and a skull. She is bending forward 
with the weight of her breasts. 

Verses 81-87 give rules relating to rituals. 

Verse 88 gives the Mantra of Tripute, and the following 
verse names the Riskx, Chhanda^ and Devata and gives rules 
of Nyasa. Verse 90 says that the Devi should be meditated 
upon as seated on two lotuses placed one above the other on a 
beautiful throne placed on the pericarp decorated by a Shzt- 
ko«a ( hexagon ). The seat is placed on a jewelled altar under 
a charming canopy under a Kalpa ( wish-granting ) tree in 
the middle of a forest of Pa.rija.ta trees. 

Her Dhyana [ V, 91. ] is as follows : — 

Meditate on the primordial Shakti. She is of the colour of 
a golden lotus and leaning forward with the weight of her 
breasts. She is adorned with jewelled toe-rings, girdles, 
neckchains and the like. She has a jewelled crown on her 
head and three eyes. In her lotus hands she has a bow, a 
noose, two lotuses, a goad and flowery arrows. 

Verse 92 says that she is surrounded by her handmaidens 
who have large breasts and are carrying fly-whisks, boxes 
containing betel leaves and mirrors in their hands. The Devi 
is looking at her votary with eyes which are raining, as it 
were, a shower of nectar on him. 

The following verses describe the ritual. It is here said 
that Lakr^ml and Vishnu, Gauri and Hara, Rati and Smara 
are to be worshipped all round her beginning from the S. E. 
corner and the two gems Shangkha and Padma are to be 
worshipped on either side, and the Lokapalas are to be wor- 
shipped in their feminine aspects. 



INTRODUCTION 



2 9 



Verses 101 and 102 contain the Mantra, composed of 
thirteen letters, of Devi Ashvarurf/fca ( Seated on a horse ). 
Verse 104 gives her Dhyana. 

Meditate always on her who is seated on a horse. She is 
red and beautiful. A digit of the moon is on her forehead. 
She has three eyes. She is adorned with beautiful garlands 
and bending forward with the weight of her breasts. With 
her left hand she is pulling the Sadhya ( woman against 
whom the rites are directed ) who is tied by a noose and is 
helpless with an access of love and in her right hand is a 
golden cane. 

Verses 105-107 describe Purashchara«a and 108 her Yantra. 
Verse 109 gives the Mantra of Annapuraa. and no her 
Dhyana : — 

Adore BhagavatI ( Annapurna ) t She is red and clothed 
in beautiful raiment. She has the young moon on her fore- 
head and is bending forward with the weight of her breasts. 
She is looking pleased as she is watching Shiva who with the 
crescent moon on his head is dancing in front of her. She 
is the giver of good and removes the pains of Samsara. 

The two verses which follow describe her worship. 

Verse 1 1 3 contain the Mantra of Padmavatl. Verse 115 
is her Dhyana. She is seated on a lotus. In her two hands 
she holds two lotuses. She has three eyes and is red of 
colour and wearing all kinds of ornaments. Her face is 
beautiful like a lotus. 

Verse 119 gives her Yantra. 

Verses 120-123 speak of Ama^a Nyasa. 

CHAPTER XI. 

Verses 1 and 2 contain the Mantra of Durga and the two 
following verses speak of the Rishx, Chhanda^, Devata and, 
so forth. Verse 5 is the Dhyana: — 

May Durga destroy all the evils which beset ye ! She has 
three eyes and is seated on a lion. On her forehead is the 
moon. In her four hands which are of the colour of emerald 



3o 



Introduction 



she is holding a conchshell, a bow, a discus and arrows. 
She is wearing armlets, garlands, wristlets, girdles and toe- 
rings with tinkling bells thereto. Her ear-ornaments are set 
with brilliant gems. 

The thirteen verses which follow describe the mode of 
worship. Verse 19 gives the Yantra. 

Verses 21 to 24 contain the Mantra of Mahwiamardinl. 

Verse 25 is the Dhyana : — 

She is the colour of emerald. She has a ( third ) eye 
on her forehead. She is adorned with gems on her head and 
ears, She is seated on the head of a buffalo. She is holding a 
Chakra (discus), a Shangkha (conchshell), a Kripana. (sword), 
a Khe/aka ( shield ), Ba«a ( arrows ), Karmuka ( bow ), Shula 
( spear ) and Tarjanl Mudra ( threatening gesture ) in her 
hands. The moon is on her head. I adore her. 

Verses 26-33 describe Purashcharawa and Prayoga. 

Verse 34 gives the Mantra of Jaya Durga. 

Verse 37 gives the Dhyana, — 

I adore Jaya Durga who is worshipped by those who seek 
Siddhi. She is of the colour of the firmament. Her fierce 
looks frightens the enemies. On her forehead is the crescent 
moon. She is seated on a lion. In her hands are a Shangkha, 
a Chakra, a Knpawa and a Trishikha ( trident ). She has 
three eyes. Her Tejas ( glory, radiance ) pervades the three 
worlds. All the Devas surround her. 

Verses 38-40 contain rules of Purashchara«a and Prayoga. 

Verse 41 contains ShulinI Durga Mantra. 

Verses 42-45 speak of the Rish\ t Chhanda^, Devata and so 
forth. 

Verse 46 gives her Dhyana : — 

I meditate on ShulinI. She is seated on a lion and is of the 
dark colour of the rainladen cloud. In her ( eight ) hands are 
a Shula, a Ba«a, a Krzpatfa, an Ari ( discus ), a lotus, a mace, 
a Bow, a Pasha. She has three eyes and has the moon on her 
forehead. She is attended by four hand-maidens who are 
carrying Khe/akas. She is the terror of the enemy army. 



INTRODUCTION 



31 



Verses 47-62 give rules of Purashchara«a and so forth. 

Verses 63-65 give Vana-Durga Mantra. The Devi is also 
called Vindhya-vasinl. Four verses which follow give name 
of Rishx and so forth. Verse 70 is her Dhyana : — 

Meditate on her who abides in the Vindhya ( Mountains ). 
She is seated on a golden lotus and has three eyes. She is 
lustrous like lightning and has in two of her hands a Shangkha 
and a Chakra and the other two are in the attitude of granting 
boons and dispelling fear. Her face is beautiful as the full 
moon and on her forehead is the crescent moon. Neckchains, 
armlets, garlands and earrings adorn her. The Devas hymn 
her. By her side is Shiva. 

Verse 71-75 speak of Purashchara#a and rituals. 

Verse 76 contains a Dhyana for the Sadhaka who seeks 
the protection of the Devi : — 

She is like the fire of final dissolution ( Kala-pavaka ) and 
in her hair is the half-moon. She has an eye on her forehead. 
She is seated on a fear-inspiring lion. In her ( eight ) hands 
are held the Chakra (discus), a Shangkha (conch), a Knpa«a 
( sword ), a Khe/aka ( shield ), a Chapa ( bow ), a Ba«a 
( arrow ), a Karo/ika ( skull ) and a Shula ( trident ). She 
subdued the whole army of the Asuras. 

Raghava quotes other similar Dhyanas from the Prapan- 
chasara and other texts. Different Prayogas are given 
( Vv. 76-123 ). 

Verse 123 gives the Raki^akara ( protective ) Yantra of 
Vindhya- vasini. It is helpful in the attainment of wealth, 
immunity from evil influences and the like. 

CHAPTER XII. 

This chapter begins with a prayer to Tripura. 

Verse 3 gives the Mantra of Tripura. Raghava cites texts 
which say that she is so called because she created the three 
( viz., Brahma, V\shnu and Rudra ) and so preceded them, 
because the three KaWas of the Vedas are by her pervaded 
and also because she is even at the time of Pralaya. 



32 



INTRODUCTION 



Verse 4 says that the Mantra is composed of three parts. 

Verses 5-32 contain the names of the Rishxs and so forth 
and a long account of how Nyasas to be done with the Mantra. 
This is supplemented by Raghava by other texts. 

Verse 31 gives the Dhyana : — 

She is of the colour of a thousand rising suns and garmen- 
ted in red silk. Her face beautiful like a red lotus is lighted 
by her three eyes. Her breasts are smeared with red sandal. 
She is wearing a garland of heads. On her head is a crown 
on which is the moon. She is smiling gently. In each of 
her hands is held a rosary, a book, the gesture of granting 
boons and that of dispelling fear. 

Verses 32-70 contain an account of the Purashcharawa and 
ritualistic worship and Prayoga. 

Verse 71-75 describe three Yantras. 

Verse 77 gives the Bala Mantra. Verses 78 and 79 give 
the Gayatri. Verses 81-94 contain a hymn of praise. The 
opening verse of which says that as even Brahma and other 
great Devas do not know the subtle ( Suky^ma ) form of the 
Devi who is the source from which the universe emanated 
the hymner therefore sings the praise of the gross ( Sthula ) 
form. 

Verses 96-99 contain the Mantra of Rajamatangini which 
is made up of 88 letters. Verses 100-127 contain directions 
for Nyasa and verse 128 contains her Dhyana : — 

She is seated on a gem-studded altar and listening to the 
pleasing notes of the parrots. One of her feet is resting on a 
lotus. She is playing on a Vma. She is elated with the 
nectar of which she has partaken. She is slightly dark of hue. 
On her forehead is the crescent moon. Her shining hair is 
made into a charming knot. Her raiment is red. She is 
wearing a garland of waterlilies. On her forehead is shining 
a Tilaka. She has armlets made of conchshells. 

This is followed by rules relating to Purashchara»a and 
ritualistic worship. 

Verses 157-166 contain a Hymn of the Devi. 



INTRODUCTION 



33 



CHAPTER XIII. _ 

This chapter gives an account of the worship of the different 
aspects of Ga»esha. The Prapanchasara ( Ch. XVII. ) deals 
with this. 

Verse 2 contains the Bija of Gawesha which is Gang and 
verse 3 speaks of the way Nyasa is to be done therewith. 
Verse 4 contains the Dhyana : — 

He is the colour of vermilion, three-eyed and has a large 
belly. In each of his lotus hands is held a tusk ( his own ), 
a noose, a goad and the gesture of granting boons. His face 
is that of the lord of elephants and at the end of his thick 
trunk is a beautiful pomegranate. On his forehead is shining 
the young moon and his cheeks are flooded with the copious 
flow of Dana ( exudations from an elephant's temple when 
in rut ). His raiment and the unguent on his body are red. 
Huge serpents are his adornment. 

Verses 5-26 describe Purashchara^a of the Mantra, the 
articles to be used in his worship, and give the names of the 
Pl^a-shaktis and attendant Devatas. 

Verses 27-28 give the Mantra of twenty-eight letters of 
Mahaga«d!pati. 

Verse 29 says that the Rishi of the Mantra is Ga«aka, the 
Chhanda^ is Nivrz't Gayatrl and verse 30 describes the 
Nyasa of the Mantra. 

Verses 31-38 say that he is to be meditated upon as 
seated on a lotus consisting of the letters of the alphabet 
( MaWkambuja ). The Sadhaka should meditate upon an 
island composed of nine gems, placed in an ocean of sugar- 
cane juice ; a soft gentle breeze blows over the island and 
makes the waves wash the shore thereof. The place is a 
forest of Mandara, Parijata and other Kalpa trees and creepers, 
and the light from the gems thereon casts a red glow on the 
ground. The six gladdening seasons are always there. The 
sun and the moon brighten up the place. In the middle of 
the island is a Parijata tree whereon are the nine gems and 



34 



INTRODUCTION 



beneath it is the great Pl^a ( altar ) on which is the lotus 
whereon is seated Mahagawapati. His face is that of the 
great elephant with the moon on it. He is red and has three 
eyes. He is held in loving embrace by his beloved who is 
seated in his lap and has a lotus in her hand. In each of his 
ten hands he is holding a pomegranate, a mace, a bow, a 
trident, a discus, a lotus, a noose, a red water-lily, a sheaf of 
paddy and his own tusk. He is holding a jewelled jar in his 
trunk. By the flapping of his ears, he is driving away the 
bees attracted to his temples by the fluid exuding therefrom, 
and he is scattering gems from out of the jar held in his 
trunk. He is wearing a ruby-studded crown and is adorned 
with gems. 

Verses 39-61 give a description of Purashchara«a and 
Prayogas. 

Verse 62 gives the Bija of Bhumi ( The Earth ). 

Verses 63 65 describe the Yantra of Mahaga«apati. 

Verses 66-67 give the Mantra of 26 letters of Viriga«apati 
and verse 68 speaks of the Muni, Chhanda^ and Devata. 

Verse 69 gives directions about Nyasa and says that 
Viriga«apati is to be meditated upon in a place similar to that 
described in the Dhyana of Mahagawapati. 

Verse 70 gives the Dhyana :— He is the colour of vermilion 
and has the face of an elephant. On his head is the half- 
moon. He has three eyes. In three of his hands he is 
holding a noose, a goad and a skull full of wine and his fourth 
hand is resting on the Yoni of his consort PusM and at 
the end of his trunk he has a vessel full of wealth. Pu^i is 
touching his Linga and embracing him with her right hand 
and in her other hand is held a lotus. 

Verses 71-76 contain directions regarding Purashchara»a, 
worship, Homa and the like. There is also given here the 
fruits gained by such worship. 

Verse 77 gives the Mantra of twelve letters of Shakti- 
ga«apati and verse 78, the Rishl, Chhanda^ and Devata and 
rules of Nyasa of the Mantra. Verse 79 gives his Dhyana : — 



INTRODUCTION 



35 



We adore him who is of the bright colour of pearl. He 
has the face of an elephant in rut. He has three eyes and 
the moon is on his forehead. A jewelled crown is on his head. 
He has a lotus, a goad and a jar full of gems in each of his 
three hands and his fourth hand is resting on the Yoni of the 
Devi seated in his lap. His trunk is resting on the jar of 
gems. The Devi who is of the colour of the lotus is hold- 
ing in one hand a lotus whilst with the other she is touching 
his Linga. 

Verses 80-83 give the usual rules of Purashchara^a, wor- 
ship and particulars relating to Prayoga. 

Verse 84 gives another Mantra of eleven letters and 85 the 
Rishx and other details. Verse 86 gives the Dhyana : — 

I ever meditate upon the Omnipresent One who is of the 
colour of red hibiscus. He has the face of an elephant with 
three eyes and the halfmoon is on his forehead. In each of his 
four hands he is holding a sugarcane, the gesture of gran- 
ting boons, a noose and a goad. The tip of his trunk is 
resting on the Yoni of his Shakti who is embracing him and 
holding the tip of his Linga with one hand and with the other 
a lotus. She is the colour of molten gold. He is full of desire. 

Verses 87-90 give directions about rituals and the like. 

Verses 90 and 91 give the Mantra of K^ipraprasadana 
Gawesha. It is of ten letters. Kj^ipraprasadana means 
'quickly pleased'. Verse 93 give his Dhyana : — 

May the Elephant-headed One protect ye ! He is red and 
has three eyes. The young moon is on his forehead and he 
is wearing a shining garland. In each of his hands is held a 
noose, a goad, a Kalpalata and one of his own tusks and he 
has a pomegranate at the tip of his trunk. 

Verses 94-102 give rules of worship, Homa and the like. 

Verse 103 says when Tarpa«a (oblation ) is made, he is to 
be meditated upon as seated on a lotus and beautiful like a 
mountain of gold, and as coming out of the effulgence of the 
sun, down rows of silver steps into the water with which the 
Tarpa«a is made. 



36 



INTRODUCTION 



Verses 105-106 give the Mantra of Heramba Gawesha and 
describe the way Nyasa is to be done therewith. 

His Dhyana is given in verse 107 : — 

I adore Heramba who is of the lustre of the sun. He is 
seated proudly on a lion. He has five faces each like that of 
an elephant, and one of them is on top and upward turned. 
They are of the colour of pearl, gold, blue, Kunda flower 
( white ) and red respectively. The moon is on the forehead 
of each of these. With two of his hands he is making the 
gestures of granting boons and dispelling fear and in each of 
the other eight is held a ball of sweets, his tusk, an axe, a 
skull, a rosary, a hammer, a goad and a trident. 

Verses 108-1 13 contain directions regarding worship, Homa 
and the like. Verses 1 14-1 19 describe the Yantra to be worn 
as an amulet and give the Mantra to be written thereon. 

Verses 1 19-120 give the Mantra of Subrahma»ya or 
Kartikeya. Verse 121 gives his Dhyana : — 

We adore Subrahmawya. He is of the colour of vermilion 
and his face is beautiful like the moon. Beautiful armlets, 
garlands and other ornaments adorn him. He is holding 
in each of his hands a lotus, the gesture of dispelling fear, a 
cock and the weapon Shakti. He is raimented in red and 
the unguent on his body is also red. He grants the happiness 
of heaven to, and destroys the fear of, his votaries. 

The eight verses which follow give details of worship. 

Verses 131-151 are a hymn in adoration of Ga«esha. In it 
he is, among other attributes, spoken of as one with Omkara 
and therefore Shabda Brahman. 

CHAPTER XIV. 

Verses 1-3 give the Mantra of Soma ( Chandra, Moon). 
Verse 4 contains the Dhyana : — 

I always adore Soma, the ocean of nectar. He is of the 
whiteness of camphor and pure crystal. His face is the circle 
of the full moon and the blue tresses which surround it 
enhance its beauty. Ropes of pearls which adorn his body 



INTRODUCTION 



37 



uproot darkness. In his two hands are held a waterlily and 
the gesture of granting boons. The stain on his surface is 
due to the deer he has in his lap. 

Verses 5-27 describe Purashchara«a, worship and Prayoga. 

Verse 28 gives the Mantra of Surya ( Sun ). The Mantra 
js of eight letters. Verses 29 to 35 contains rules of Nyasa 
and other details and verse 36 gives his Dhyana : — 

I adore the Lord of the Day. He is of the redness of the 
Bandhuka flower and seated on a red lotus. He has three 
luminous eyes and a ruby crown on his head. He is holding 
a lotus in each of two of his hands and with the other two 
is making the gestures of dispelling fear and granting boons. 
He is adorned with armlets, garlands and so forth. 

Verses 37-57 describe Purashchara#a, worship and Prayoga. 

Verse 58 gives Prayojana-tilaka Mantra and 59 and 60 
Nyasa. Verse 61 gives the Dhyana of the Devata : — 

I adore Bhanu ( an aspect of Surya ). He is seated on a 
red lotus. He is the ocean of endless good and the Lord of 
the limitless Universe. In two of his hands he is holding two 
lotuses and the other two are held in the attitudes of dispelling 
fear and granting boons. He is red and is wearing a ruby 
crown. He has three eyes. 

Verses 62-65 gi ve ru ' es °f Purashchara«a and rituals. 

Verse 66 gives the Bija of Marta«a?a Bhairava. This Blja 
is very difficult to pronounce and the commentary says that it 
js only the Guru who can show the way to do it. If this Bija 
is placed between two Vimba Bijas and repeated then it 
becomes very effective. The verses which follow give rules 
of Nyasa. Verse 71 gives the Dhyana of Marta«a?a : — 

We adore Marta«^a. He is of the redness of a golden 
lotus and coral. He has four beautiful faces with three eyes in 
each. He is holding in each of his lotus-like hands a beautiful 
Kha/vanga, a lotus, a discus, a Shakti, a noose, a goad, a 
very beautiful rosary and a skull. The left half of his body is 
that of his beloved. On his head is a jewelled crown and 
he is wearing a shining garland. 



INTRODUCTION 



Verses 72 to 79 describe the ritual beginning with 
Purashchara#a. 

Verses 80-88 give the Ajapa Mantra ( Hamsa^ ) and 
other particulars. The Devata of the Mantra is the Lord of 
Girija who is the beginning of creation. The reason for 
giving it here, says Raghava, is that this Mantra partakes of 
the nature of Agni and Soma — ( Agnl^omatmaka ). 

Verse 83 gives the Dhyana : — 

May he who is half the Mother and half the Lord, who is 
the Root of the Universe protect ye ! He is of the colour of 
the rising sun and like a flash of lightning. In his hands are 
a noose, the gesture of dispelling fear, the gesture of granting 
boons and a battle-axe. Celestial ornaments made of nine 
kinds of gems adorn him. His body is Moon (Soma) and Fire 
( Agni ). He has three eyes. On his forehead is the Moon. 

In the Nyasa of the Mantra ( Vv. 84-90 ) parts of the 
HamsavatI Rik of the i?zgveda is to be used. 

Verse 91 states the benefit gained by the Sadhana of this 
Mantra. There is a long passage cited by Raghava from the 
Tantrantara in which a more detailed account of the ritual is 
given. In this, the way we breathe and how often we do it in 
the course of twentyfour hours and other details are given. 

The identity of the Hangsa^ Mantra with the Pra«ava is 
recognised among Sadhakas and fully explained by, among 
others, Shamkaracharya in the Prapanchasara ( Ch. IV. ). 
This Mantra is called the Root of the Universe as it is the 
breath of life. 

It may incidentally be noted that it is this Hangsa^ and 
not a 'Swan' which is the carrier ( Vahana ) of Brahma. 

Verses 92-94 give the Mantra of Agni ( Fire ) and other 
particulars. Verse 95 gives the Dhyana : — 

I adore red Agni. He has a golden garland resting on 
his shoulders. He is adorned with red garlands and red 
sandal paste. The mass of flames shining on his head are like 
so many matted locks. His raiment is very white. In each 
of his hands he is carrying a Shakti, a Svastika, a Darbha- 



INTRODUCTION 



39 



musM, a rosary, a sacrifical ladle ( Sruk ) and spoon ( Sruva ), 
the gestures of dispelling fear and granting boons. He has 
three beautiful eyes. 

Verses 96-115 deal with Purashchara«a and so forth. 

Verses 116 and 117 give the Mantra of Turagagni 
( Vaafovagni : Horsefire ) and 1 19 gives the Dhyana : — 

He is of the form of a horse and he has come out of a 
golden Ashvattha tree, and is red like a mass of vermilion. 
Flames are the hairs on his body. His beauty charms the 
world. Ornaments of priceless gems adorn his neck. Gems 
come out of his organs ( Indriyas ) are spread all over the 
world. 

The rest of the chapter describes the ritual and the 
different benefits derived therefrom. 

CHAPTER XV. 

This chapter deals with the worship of Vishnu. Verse 2 
gives a Mantra of eight letters. The text ( Vv. 10-1 1 ) speaks 
of a Mantra of twelve letters and then proceeds ( Vv. 12-21 ) 
to speak of Nyasa and other rites. 

Verse 22 contains a Dhyana of Vi^»u : — 

I ever adore the Supporter of the Universe. He is lustrous 
with the lustre of ten million rising suns and in his hands 
are a conchshell, a mace, a lotus and a discus. On either 
side of him are beautiful Lakj^ml and Vasumatl. He has a 
crown on his head and is wearing armlets, garlands and 
ear-ornaments. His raiment is yellow. The Kaustubha gem 
enhances his lustre and on his breast is the sign of Shrivatsa. 

Shrivatsa is the curl of white hair on the breast of Vi^»u. 

Verses 23-36 contain ritualistic rules. 

Verse 37 gives another Mantra of twelve letters ; and the 
three following verses speak of the Riski and so forth as also 
of Nyasa. Verse 41 contains the Dhyana. This is similar 
to the last, only Vasumatl and Lakr^ml are not in this and 
he is described as of the colour of ten million moons of 
autumn. This aspect is adored by great Munis. 



4o 



INTRODUCTION 



Verse 47 contains a Mantra of 14 letters. The Dhyana 
according to this Mantra is in verse 50 : — 

He is of the colour of lightning and the moon. Half his 
body is Vaiku»Ma ( Vis&nu ) and the other half is Kamalaja 
( Lakf^mi ). This union is due to mutual affection. He is 
adorned with gem-set ornaments. He is carrying in each of 
his eight hands the Vidya-mudra, a lotus, a mirror, a jar of 
gems, again a lotus, a mace, a conchshell and a discus. 

Vi^wu is VaikuwMa as he is beyond ( vi ) all Ku«Ma or 
limitation. The name Vii^«u again, means he who pervades 
Creation. The word comes from the root vish = to enter. 

Verse 53 contains a Mantra of eighteen letters ; after 
naming the Riski and so forth ( Vv. 54-57 ) the Dhyana is 
given in verse 58 : — 

We worship him who is of the radiance of pearls and 
is seated on the moon. Nine different kinds of gems are in 
his ornaments. His lotus-like face is adorned with locks of 
hair like black bees. In his lotus hands are held a golden 
jar filled with pure water and a cup of gold full of curd 
and rice. 

Verses 59-68 describe rituals and Yantra. 

Verses 69 and 70 contain a Mantra of V\shnu as Hayagriva 
( Horse-headed ). This is followed by names of Ristix and so 
forth. Verse 72 is the Dhyana : — 

He is of the lustre of the autumnal moon and adorned with 
ornaments set with pearls. His head is that of a horse. In 
two of his hands he is holding a discus and a conchshell and 
the other two are resting on his knees. 

Verses 81 gives the Mantra of Rama. 

Verse 84 gives Dhyana :— I always adore Raghava who is 
of the charming radiance of dark rain clouds. He is seated in 
the Virasana posture, with one hand in the gesture of 
Jriana-mudra and the other resting on his knee. He is adorned 
with a crown, armlets and various other ornaments. Slta who 
is lustrous like lightning and is holding a lotus in her hand 
is seated by his side and looking at him. 



INTRODUCTION 



41 



Verses 85-98 describe rituals and the Dharawa Yantra or 
amulet. 

Verses 99-100 give the Mala Mantra of forty-seven letters 
of Rama and verse 101 gives the Mantra of ten letters. 

Verses 103-105 give the Mantra of Varaha and the two 
following verses speak of Nyasa and other details. 

Verse 108 gives his Dhyana. Verses 109-127 describe 
the rituals and Yantra. Verse 128 gives Varaha Blja. 

The Yantra of Varaha (V. 132 ), buried in manner 
enjoined, in a selected spot in a village, town or like place, 
ensures its stability and prosperity. 

Verse 134 gives the Dhara-hralaya ( Heart of the Earth ) 
Mantra. 

Verse 1 38 gives the Dhyana :-We adore Vasudha ( Earth 
as container of all wealth ). She is green. She is seated on 
a lotus. She is adorned with variegated gems and raiment 
and is bending forward with the weight of her large breasts. 
She is holding in her hands two lotuses, a sheaf of fresh 
Shali-paddy and a parrot. 

The rest of the chapter gives ritual. 

CHAPTER XVI. 

The chapter begins with the Mantra of Nara-simha ( Man- 
lion ). This is one of the aspects of VisAnu. The Mantra 
is Vedik. After naming the Rish\ and so forth ( 3-6 ) the 
Dhyana of Nara-simha is given in verse 7 : — 

I ever adore the omnipresent Nara-simha. He is of the 
lustre of a mountain of rubies. By his effulgence are the 
Rak^asas panic-struck. Two of his hands rest on his 
knees and in the other two are held the Chakra and the 
Shangkha. He has three eyes. His ornaments are brilliant 
red. Flames of fire issuing from his fangs and tongue light 
up his face. His hair is standing on end. 

This is the placid ( Saumya ) Dhyana. Verse 13 gives the 
Dhyana of his fierce ( Krura ) aspect. As such Nara-hari 
( Man-lion ) is of the effulgence of ten million rising suns. He 



4 2 



INTRODUCTION 



is ornamented with a shining crown and neckchains. His 
fangs make his face fierce. By his long arms tipped with 
shining nails he is tearing open the king of Asuras. The 
Sun, the Moon and the Fire are his three eyes. His matted 
hair shining like lightning frightens. He is belching fire. 

The word Asura is ordinarily translated as the equivalent 
of 'Demon'. Shamkaracharya ( Vide Com. Sanat-sujatlya ) 
interprets it also to mean a person who seeks the pleasures of 
the senses. The king is Hira^ya-kashipu who, as the name 
shows, is the embodiment of pride of wealth. 

In verse 14, it is said that for the purpose of Saumya 
( propitiatory ) rites the Saumya Dhyana is appropriate and 
in Krura ( cruel ) rites, the Krura Dhyana. After describing 
( Vv. 15-31 ) the ritual and the benefits therefrom, the Puja 
Yantra is described in verse 32 and another Yantra in verse 38. 
Verse 39 gives the Bija ( K^raung ) of Nrz'simha. 
Verses 40-42 give the Mantra of Jvala-nn'simha. 
Verse 45 gives his Dhyana :— He is terrific like the 
Fire of Pralaya ( final dissolution ). He has three eyes. 
Flames of fire add to his lustre. He has fierce fangs and is a 
terror to the Raks^asas. His matted locks scattered in all 
directions make him awful to behold. In each of his hands 
is held, a conchshell, a discus, a sword and a shield. 

Verse 48 gives the Mantra of Lak^mi-nWsimha and verse 
50, his Dhyana. 

In his commentary to verse 54 Raghava quotes long 
passages from Agasti-samhita, Mantra-tantra-prakasha, Vaya- 
, viya-samhita, Kula-prakasha-tantra, Vaishampayana-samhita 
and some unnamed authorities giving rules relating to 
Purashchara»a. Here is also cited a text from the Vayaviya- 
samhita describing the three forms of Japa, namely, Uchcha 
( spoken ), Upangshu ( muttered ) and Manasa ( mental ). 

The Glta is cited to say that the rite of Japa is the 
highest rite and the very self of the Lord. 
Verse 64 describes a Yantra of Nfz'simha. 
Verse 67 gives the Sudarshana Mantra, 



INTRODUCTION 



43 



The attention of the reader is drawn to the Nnsimhatapani 
and the 5^a^chakra Upani^ads. 

Verse 75 contains the Dhyana of Wisknu as Muraripu or 
Murari ( Enemy of Mura ) :— 

He is resplendent like the sun at the time of final 
dissolution. By his glory and radiance he fills up the three 
worlds. His eyes are red and hair, tawny. He is the terror, 
of all enemies. His fangs are terrific. He is laughing loudly 
in derision. In his hands are a discus, a conch-shell, a mace, 
a lotus, a huge hammer, a bow, a noose and a goad. Thus 
should the enemy of Mura be pictured in the mind. 

Mura is usually said to be the name of a demon. It also 
means anything which distracts the mind and thereby obstructs 
the path to Liberation. 

Verses 76-131 describe Purashcharawa and ritual. 

Verses 132-140 describe six Yantras. 

CHAPTER XVII. 

This chapter begins with the Purus/fcottama Mantra and the 
rites relating thereto. In the Prapanchasara ( Ch. XXIII. 
2nd Edition ) Shamkaracharya has dealt with the same subject. 
It is called the Guptapa^ala by Raghava. 

A Christian writer speaks of the Prapanchasara as a "foul 
book", alluding possibly, to the description of the ecstacy of 
the devotees of the Mantra. Regrettable as such remarks 
undoubtedly are, one should not wonder at it, for writers 
of this type are not capable of the emotions which the 
true devotee experiences. They do not, it may be surmised, 
believe in and appreciate their own Bible. If they did, the 
Song of Solomon would have taught them to be more 
circumspect in the language used in dealing with sentiments 
which are foreign to them. 

The Mantra given ( Vv. 2-1 1 ) is one of two hundred 
letters. The verses which follow give the usual particulars. 

After describing a beautiful garden ( Vv. 23-29 ) ; it is said 
( V. 30 ) that the Deva Puru^sottama should be meditated 



44 



INTRODUCTION 



upon there, as united with his consort who is of the colour of 
a lotus and is holding a lotus in her left hand and embracing 
him with her right. He is looking smilingly at her. 
He is holding in each of hi s hands the conchshell, the noose, 
the hammer, the bow, the arrow, the sword, the mace and 
the goad. 

Verses 31 to 58 contain ritulistic rules. 

Verse 59 gives Shrlkara Mantra of eight letters. 

Verses 62-65 show how Nyasa is to be done with the 
Vedik Rtk beginning 'Brahmawo'sya mukham aslt' in the 
Puru^a-sukta and verse 67 gives the Dhyana :— 

He is lustrous as a mountain of gold and in his lotus face 
has lotus-like eyes. On his chest is the gem, Kaustubha. 
He is beautiful to look at and is adorned with a crown, 
armlets and other ornaments. He is seated on the bird-king 
Garuflk. In his four hands he is carrying a conchshell, 
a discus, a mace and a lotus, He is imperishable. 

Verses 68-81 describe rituals. 

Verses 82 and 83 give the Gopala Mantra and this is 
followed by the Dhyana of the Deva in verse 89. The 
Dhyana is preceded by a description of B^mdabana with the 
thousands of Gopinls whose faces are like lotuses and who 
in the excess of their desire are reduced to helplessness. 

The description may be compared with that in the Gupta- 
patela of the Prapanchasara. 

Verses 90-102 describe ritual and Gopala Yantra. 

Verse 103 gives the Pinda Blja. 

The commentator cites, under this verse, long passages 
containing Dhyanas of the boy Krishna. 

Verse 104 gives a Mantra of six letters of Krishna., and 
verse 105, one of ten letters, verse 106, one of sixteen letters 
and verses 107-109, one of thirty-two letters. 

Verse 110 gives the Kama-linga Yantra. Verse 111 gives 
a Mantra of thirty-two letters which is to be inscribed on the 
Yantra. Verses 1 1 2-1 13 give directions as to how the Yantra 
is to be drawn with the Mantras therein. 



Introduction 45 

Verses 1 1 4-1 16 describe another Yantra and the Mantra 
to be inscribed therein. 

Verse 117 gives the Mantra of Kama. It is of one letter. 
Verse 120 gives the Dhyana of Kama and verses 121- 143 
describe rituals. Verse 144 gives his Yantra. Verse 145 
gives his Gayatri. Verses 146-147 give the Mala Mantra of 
Kama. It is of forty-eight letters. Verse 148 describes 
another Yantra of Kama. 

Verses 150-161 contain a hymn to Vishnu wherein he is 
adored in all his difterent incarnations. In this among the 
ten incarnations Buddha is included. In speaking of the 
Buddha incarnation, it is here said that for the suppression 
of the Asuras he assumed the Kauplna ( a bit of rag ) as his 
garb and composed Shastras which are almost irrefutable 
( Amogha-kalpa ). In the Prapanchasara, Buddha is not 
recognised as one of the Avataras. 

CHAPTER XVIII. 

In this chapter are given various Mantras of Shiva. 
The name Shiva is derived from the root, vash^to rule. 
His carrier is VrisAa. which means Dharma. Shiva's rule is 
based on Dharma. Vrisha. is commonly translated to mean a 
bull, which it also means. 

In verse 2 is given his Mantra of six letters. Verses 3-6 
describe Nyasa. 

The commentator cites a verse which says that the six 
limbs ( .S^aafanga ) of Shiva are, — All-knowingness, Content- 
ment, Limitless knowledge, Self-dependence, Imperishability 
and Limitless power. 

The text proceeds to give ( Vv. 7-12 ) Golaka Nyasa. 

Verse 13 contains the Dhyana of Shiva : — 

He is lustrous like a mountain of silver with the beautifully 
shining moon on his forehead. He is adorned with gems and 
carries in each of his four hands a battle-axe, a deer and the 
gestures of granting boons and dispelling fear. He is gracious 
of mien, seated on a lotus, raimented with a tiger-skin and 



4 6 



INTRODUCTION 



surrounded by all the Devas who are singing his praise. 
He is the source of the universe. His form is the universe. 
He dispels all fears. He has five faces with three eyes in each. 

This is followed by ( Vv. 14-31 ) rules of Purashchara»a 
and other rites. 

Verses 32-33 contain a Mantra of eight letters and rules 
relating there to. 

Verse 34 contains the Dhyana of Shiva as the Deva of 
the Mantra : — 

He is red like the Bandhiika flower and has three eyes. 
A digit of the moon is on his forehead. He has a smiling face 
and in each of his hands is held, a trident, a skull and the 
gestures of granting boons and dispelling fear. On his left 
knee is seated his beloved, holding in her left hand a beautiful 
red lotus and with the other hand embracing him. She is 
adorned with gem-studded ornaments. 

Verses 35-48 contain rules of Purashchararaa and other 
rites. 

Verse 49 contains the Prasada Mantra and this is followed 
by ( Vv. 50-55) rules relating to Nyasa and so forth. 

The commentator here cites the Vedik Riks of Ishana, 
Tat-purus&t, Aghora, Vama deva and Sadyo-jata. Verses 
56-84 describe how Nyasa is to be done with the Riks. 

Verse 85 contains the Dhyana of Sadashiva : — 

He is the Lord whose five faces are, respectively, the 
colour of pearl, yellow, rain-cloud, mother of pearl and hibiscus 
flower. He has three eyes in each face. He is of the efful- 
gence of millions of fullmoons. In each of his ten hands he 
has a trident," a battle-axe, a sword, the thunderbolt, the fire, 
a great serpent, a bell, a goad, a noose, and the gesture of 
dispelling fear. He is adorned with priceless gems. 

This is followed by rules relating to Purashchara«a and 
other rites. 

Verse 98 contains the Prasada Mantra of eight letters. 

Verse 100 contains the Dhyana of the Deva : — 

I adore him who is of the colour of vermilion. On his 



INTRODUCTION 



47 



head is a gem-studded crown and the Moon. On his forehead 
is shining his third eye. His lotus face is illumined with a 
smile. The gems and ornaments he is wearing are of celestial 
excellence. On his left knee is placed the right hand of his 
beloved who, with the other hand, is holding a red water-lily. 
One of his hands is on the rounded and high breast of 
his beloved and with the others he holds the Veda, a battle- 
axe and the gesture of granting boons. 

Verses 101-104 contain rules of Purashchara«a and rituals. 

Verse 105 contains the Mantra of Shiva as Mz-ztyunjaya 
( Conqueror of Death ) and verse 108 his Dhyana : — 

His three eyes are the Moon, the Sun and the Fire. He 
has a smiling face. He is seated on a lotus and another lotus 
is above him. He is of the effulgence of the moon. One of 
his hands is held in the gesture of Jnana-mudra, and in each 
of the others is a noose, a deer and a rosary of Ak^a beads. 
The nectar flowing from the Moon in his matted hair, 
bathes his body. He is wearing garlands and other gems. 
His beauty charms the universe. He is the Lord of creatures 
and the Conqueror of Death. 

Verses 109-124 contain rules relating to Purashcharawa 
and so forth. Verse 125 says that, he, the Lord of Uma, 
should be meditated upon in the heart for the alleviation of 
all pain. Verses 126-128 contain some more ritualistic rules 
and verse 129 gives his Yantra. 

CHAPTER XIX. 

Verses 2 and 3 give the Mantra of Dak^ma-murti. This 
is followed by the usual particulars about the name of the 
RishX and so forth. Verses 10-18 contain a description of the 
place where he is, and as his subtle ( Suk^ma ) form is 
ineffable, the Dhyana in verse 19 is of his gross ( Sthula ) 
form : — 

I adore him who is like the Mount Kailasa. On his matted 
locks is the crescent moon. His gaze is fixed on the tip of 
his nose. He is three-eyed and is seated in the Vira posture 



4 8 



INTRODUCTION 



( Vlrasana ). He is gracious of mien carrying in three of his 
hands the Jnana-mudra, a battle-axe and a deer and one hand 
is placed on his thigh. Serpents encircle his waist. He is 
surrounded by the Munis. 

It may be noted that all the Dhyanas given in the book 
are of the Sthula forms only for the help of the Sadhaka 
towards that which words cannot describe. 

This is followed by rules relating to Purashcharawa and so 
forth. 

Verses 25 and 26 contain directions regarding a method of 
making of Brahmlghnta by Sadhakas of this Mantra. 

Verses 27, 28 give another Mantra and this is followed by, 
as usual, the name of the Rishx and so forth. 

Verse 31 contains the Dhyana of Dak^i«5-murti as the 
Deva of this Mantra : — 

I adore him who is three-eyed and is of the colour of 
crystalline silver. In two of his hands are a rosary of pearls 
and a jar of nectar, and with the other two he is making the 
gestures of Vidya and J nana. On his forehead is the Moon. 
He is adorned with many kinds of ornament. Serpents 
encircle his waist. 

Verses 32-41 deal with Purashcharawa and rituals. 

Verses 42, 43 contain the Mantra of Shiva as Nllaka»Ma 
( Blue-throated ) and verse 48 is his Dhyana : — 

He is seated on a lotus. His effulgence is that of- ten 
thousand young suns. On his matted locks is a digit of 
the moon. He is raimented with tiger-skins and great 
serpents are his adornment. He is beautiful and has 
five faces with three eyes in each. In each hand of his 
is held a rosary, a trident, a skullcup and a skull-mounted 
staff. 

Verses 49-54 describe Purashchara^a and other rites. 
Verse 55 gives the Chintamam Mantra Verse 58 contains 
the Dhyana which is that of Ardhanarlshvara. 

Verses 59-82 describe Purashchara«a, rituals and Yantras. 
Verse 83 contains the Tumburu Bija. 



INTRODUCTION 



49 



Verse 90 gives the Dhyana :— 

He is red and has four faces with three eyes to each. His 
noses are flat. The crescent moon adorns his head. He is 
decked with priceless adornment. He is smeared with red 
unguent and his raiment is red. He is decked with red 
flowers. In his hands are a skull-mounted staff ( Kha/vanga ), 
a noose, a goad and a white skull cup. 

Verses 91-108 contain Purashcharawa and rituals and 109 
the Yantra. 

Verses no, in contain Khadga-rava«a Mantra. 

Verse 120 gives the Dhyana : — He has five faces and ten 
hands, is red in colour and his raiment is red. 

This is followed ( Vv. 1 21-132 ) by Purashchara«a and 
rituals. 

CHAPTER XX. 

Verses 2-4 give the Aghorastra Mantra of 51 letters. Verse 
10 gives the Dhyana of Aghora : — 

He is dark like the heavily laden rain-clouds. He has 
three eyes and terrific fangs. His raiment is red, so also is the 
unguent on his body. In his hands are a battle-axe, a Z?amaru 
( small drum ), a sword, a shield, a bow, an arrow, a trident 
and a human skull. Serpents circle round him. 

He is to be meditated upon as of different hue for different 
Prayogas ; such as, black for Abhichara, white for Mok^a 
and so on. 

Verses 12-21 deal with Purashchara«a, rituals and Prayogas. 

Verses 22 and 23 describe two Yantras. 

Verse 25 gives the Pashupatastra Mantra of six letters. 
Verse 27 gives the Dhyana of Pashupati. 

This as also Aghora are fearsome aspects. 

Verses 28-31 deal with Purashcharawa and other rites. 

Verse 32 contains the Mantra of K^etrapala and verse 
34 the Dhyana :— 

He is dark like a mountain of dark blue collyrium. 
His hair is of a tawny hue. He is raimented with space. 



INTRODUCTION 



Serpents are his adornment. His eyes are round and angry. 
In his hands are a mace and a skull. He has terrific fangs. 
His body is wonderful. I bow to him. 

Verses 35-40 deal with Purashcharawa, rituals and Prayogas. 

Verses 44-45 contain Apaduddharawa ( rescuing from 
danger) Mantra of VaAika. It is of 21 letters. 

Verse 50 gives the Dhyana of VaAika in his Sattvika 
aspect : — 

He is a boy, bright and white like crystal. He has three 
eyes and his face is cheerful and charming with its curly hair. 
He is decked with ornaments of great beauty, set with nine 
kinds of gem. His raiment is white. In his two hands he is 
holding a trident and a stick. 

Verse 52 gives the Rajasa Dhyana of Va/uka : — 

He is in colour like the rising sun, three-eyed and is 
smeared with red unguent and wearing a red garland. He 
has a smiling face. With two of his hands he is making 
the gestures of granting boons and dispelling fear and in each 
of his other two hands is held a skull and a trident. His throat 
is blue. He is decked with hundreds of rich ornaments. 
On his head is shining the moon. His raiment is of the 
redness of the Bandhuka flower. 

Verse 53 gives the Tamasa Dhyana :— 

He is of the colour of a blue mountain. He has a digit 
of the moon on his head, fear-inspiring fangs and three eyes. 
He has tawny hair and the points of the compass are his 
raiment. Serpents adorn him and he is wearing a garland of 
heads and on his feet are toe-rings set with gems. In his 
hands he holds a serpent, a bell, a skull, a small drum, a goad, 
a sword, a noose and the fear-dispelling gesture. 

Sattvika Dhyana is for those who wish to avoid accidental 
death, seeks happy long life and Liberation ( Mokj^a ). 
Rajasa Dhyana is for those who seek Dharma, Artha and 
Kama and Tamasa for such as seek to injure their enemies 
and counteract evil influences. 

Verses 55-131 deal with Purashchara^a, and Prayoga. 



INTRODUCTION 



Verses 132-134 give the Yantra for averting danger. 

Verses 135-136 contain the Chanda. Mantra of 3 letters. 

Verse 139 gives the Dhyana of Chanda. : — 

He is red, three-eyed, garbed in red and on his head is 
the Moon. He has in each of his hands a battle-axe, 
a trident, a rosary of crystals, and a Kama«<felu. 

Verses 140-148 give rules of Purashcharawa, and so forth. 

Verses 149-159 is a hymn to Shiva : — 

Thou art the form of Earth, Water, Fire, Air, Ether, 
the Sacrificer, the Moon and the Sun. 

Thou art beneficent and abidest in all that is : 

Obeisance to Thee ! 

Thou abidest in the Upanis^ads, 

Thou art Shruti, Shruti owes her birth to Thee. 

Thou art beyond the senses. 

Thou art the eternal Maha^ : 

To Thee Obeisance again and again. 

Thou art neither gross nor subtle. 

Thou art good ( Shambhu ) . 

Thou destroyest the ills of this world. 

Obeisance to Thee, O Bhava ! 

Thou art far beyond all polemics. 

All-knowing Thou art and grantest the fruits of penance, 

And the fourfold aims of human life. 

Obeisance to Thee and again obeisance 1 

Thou hast no beginning, no middle and no end. 

Thou dispellest all fear. 

Attributeless art Thou and great. 

Yogins alone can meditate on Thee : 

To Thee obeisance and again obeisance ! 

Thou art the Universe, and beyond thought. 

Thou destroyest the pride of Kama. 

Thou annihilatest Time. 

On Thy forehead shines the Moon. 

To Thee obeisance again and again ! 



52 



INTRODUCTION 



Thou eatest poison and 

Art seated on the constantly moving Vrisha.. 

The flowing waters of Ganga holds like a string 

Thy matted locks in place : 

To Thee obeisance ! 

Pure Thou art and purifiest, 

Thou art the innermost Atma of the pure. 

Thou art the destroyer of Tripura. 

Thou art all and Thy name purifies : 

To Thee obeisance ! 

Thou grantest Enjoyment and Liberation to Thy votaries, 

And art to them devoted. 

Thou hast no home, no cloth to cover Thyself, 

Yet art Thou the Ruler of the Universe : 

To Thee obeisance again and again ! 

Thou art the root of the Three ( Brahma, VisAnu, Rudra ). 

Thou hast three eyes. Obeisance to Thee ! 

Thou art the Light of the three Lights ( Sun, Moon, Fire ). 

Thou destroyest rebirth : 

To Thee obeisance | 

The gems in the diadems of Devas and Asuras tint, 
With a rosy tint, Thy feet. 
Charming and beloved Thou art, 

And hast to Thy beloved given half Thine own body : 
Obeisance to Thee again and yet again ! 

CHAPTER XXI. 

After having described the rituals of the five classes of 
worshippers ( Panchopasakas ) commonly known as Tantrikas 
the author here begins to speak of Vedik Mantras. In this 
chapter he first speaks of the Gayatrl Mantra which makes 
the Sach-chid-ananda Brahman manifest. The twenty-four 
letters of the Gayatrl ( V. i ) are the twenty-four Tattvas. 

Raghava cites a long passage from the Prapanchasara 
( Ch. XXX ) which shows how the Vyahro'tis and the Gayatri 
point towards the Brahman. 



INTRODUCTION 



53 



Verses 2-8 give the names of the Rishis of the Vyahntis 
and of the Gayatri, the Chhanda^, the Devatas and so forth. 
The Mantra itself being Vedik has not been given. 

Verses 9-14 speak of the different forms of Nyasa to be 
done. 

Raghava cites a long passage from the Kalpantara which 
shows how each single letter of the Gayatri has to be placed 
when doing Nyasa. 

Verse 1 5 gives the Dhyana of the Devi Gayatri : — 

She has five faces which are of the colour of pearl, 
coral, gold, and blue and white respectively. Each face 
has three eyes. Her gem-set crown has the Moon on it. 
The twenty-four letters of the Mantra compose her body. 
Two of her hands are held in the gestures of granting boons 
and dispelling fear and in each of the other hands she 
holds a goad, a whip, a white skull, a noose, a conchshell, 
a discus and two lotuses. 

Raghava cites texts which shows the different ways the Devi 
is to be meditated upon in three different times of the day, 
namely, morning, midday, evening. The Mahanirva#a-tantra 
also gives the three Dhyanas. { See Avalon's 'Great Liberation* 
Ch. V. ). 

Verses 16-31 give directions about Purashchara«a and so 
forth. Raghava here gives the fourth part of the Gayatri, of 
which use is made by those who seek Liberation. 

Verse 32 speaks of the TrwMip Mantra. 

The Mantra is given by Raghava in his commentary and 
he says that being a very wellknown Mantra in the /?zgveda 
it has not been given by the author. It is of 44 letters. 

Verses 33-38 contain information about Riskx, Chhanda^, 
Devata and so forth and the rules of Nyasa. 

Verse 39 gives the Dhyana of Durga as Analatmika 
(Fire):- 

She is of the effulgence of streaks of lightning 
and is seated on a lion. She is terrific of aspect and 
surrounded by young virgins who are carrying swords and 



54 



Introduction 



shields. She has three eyes and has the Moon on her forehead 
She has in each of her hands a discus, a conchshell, a sword, 
a shield, a bow, an arrow, a trident and the Tarjani-mudra 
( Chiding gesture ). 

Verses 40-56 give rules of Purashchara»a, ritualistic 
worship, Prayoga and information about articles to be used 
in, and the proper time and place for doing, the rites. 

In verse 57 it is said that the previous Mantra becomes, 
if reversed ( VilomapaMita ), the Agneyastra Mantra. 

The Dhyana of the Devata of the Mantra it is said 
( V. 59 ) has to be learnt frnm the Guru. 

With verse 60 begins a description of how Vedik Mantras 
made up of parts of the Tri^/up Mantra are to be used for 
gaining worldly advantages, injuring enemies and so forth. 

In describing these rites the Mantras of Durga. in her 
different aspects are given. These forms are Atidurga Ga#i- 
durga, Vishva-durga, Sindhu-durga, and Agni-durga. 

Verse 146 gives the Yantra. 

CHAPTER XXII. 

In verse 2 it is said that the Ati durga Mantra is called 
Dinastra and ( V. 3 ) if it is reversed it is called Kntyastra. 

Verses 3-88 contain injunctions relating to the different 
purposes for which these Mantras may be used. 

Verses 89-97 give the Lavaca Mantra and the name of the 
Rish\ and other particulars. 

Agni, Ratri, Durga and Bhadrakali are the Devatas of the 
Mantra. 

Verses 100, 101 give the Chxti Mantra of 24 letters. 
Verse 102 gives the Dhyana of Agni, 103 of Ratri, 104 of 
Durga and 105, of Bhadrakali. 

Verses 106-164 contain rules relating to Purashchara^a 
worship and the manner the Mantra is to be used for the 
attainment of the object desired. 



INTRODUCTION 



55 



CHAPTER XXIII. 
This chapter speaks of the Traiyambaka or Anu^/up 
Mantra. It is of 32 letters. The Mantra which is Vedik is not 
given in the text but Raghava supplies it from the Rigveda. 

Verses 2-8 give the name of the Rishi, Chhanda^ and 
so forth and direction regarding Nyasa. 
Verse 9 gives the Dhyana : — 

I adore Shiva. He is seated on a lotus of transparent 
whiteness. He is beautiful like Mount Kailasa. He has 
three eyes. On his diadem is the digit of the moon. With 
two of his hands he is bathing his head with nectar out of 
two jars held in two other hands. In two of his other hands 
are held a deer and a rosary. On two hands resting on the 
body are placed two jars. 

Verses 10-33 gi ve ru ^ GS relating to Purashchara#a, worship 
and the way the Mantra is to be used in Prayoga. 

Verse 34 says that the Mantra of 100 letters is made 
up of the letters of the Mantras of Gayatri ( 24 ), Tri^/up 
( 44 ) and Anu^/up ( 32 ). 

Verse 37 gives the Dhyana : — 

I adore the great Maha^ who is Truth and im- 
measurable, the Source of the words of Shruti, Cause of 
the Universe, spread over the moving and the motionless, 
the object of meditation of those Munis who have restrained 
their senses. He is the Sun, Fire and Moon. The hundred 
letters of the Mantra form his body. He is the Prawava, 
all-spreading Nityananda ( Enduring Bliss ) and beyond the 
three Gu»as ( Sattva, Rajas, Tamas ). 

Raghava interprets this verse with illustrations from Shruti 
and gives an alternative interpretation whereby the Dhyana 
becomes applicable to Ku^alini Shakti. 

This shows the relation of in-separateness ( A-vina- 
bhava ) between Shiva and Shakti. 

Verses 38-51 contain Purashcharawa and other particulars. 

Verse 52 speaks of the Varum Rik. 



56 



INTRODUCTION 



The Rik which is in Rigve&a. is supplied by Raghava. 

Verse 57 gives the Dhyana of Varurca : — 

He is seated on a lotus and is lustrous like the moon. 
Gracious of aspect he is holding in two of his hands a 
noose and a goad and with the other two, making the 
gestures of dispelling fear and granting boons. He is 
adorned with pearls. 

This is followed by ( Vv. 58-70 ) rules of Purashchara«a 
worship and so forth. 

In verse 71 the author says "I now speak of the rules of 
Prawapratu^Ma ( Life-infusing ) Mantra whereby the Mantras 
previously mentioned become quick with Life'" 

Verses 72-75 describe the Mantra. This is followed by 
the name of its Riskx and so forth. 

Verse 85 gives the Dhyana of the Devi of the Mantra :— 

She is red and is seated on a red boat in a red ocean. 
She has three eyes. In each of her hands is held a noose, 
a goad, a bow, an arrow, a trident and a skull. 

Verses 86-103 give rules of Purashchara^a and so forth. 

Verse 104 gives the Yantra. 

Verses 105-1 14 describe different kinds of Mudra. 

Verses 1 1 5-1 20 describe different kinds of rosary and the 
benefits that are respectively derived therefrom. 

Verses 1 21-135 speak of S/fca/karma, that is, the different 
rites for attaining the six objects, such as, Shanti ( Peace ), 
Stambhana ( Paralysing ) and so forth. 

Some of the technological expressions used in the book 
are also explained ( Vv. 136-145 ). Raghava has further 
illustrated this by citing texts from various authorities. 

CHAPTER XXIV. 

This chapter ( Vv. 1-86 ) describes thirty-six different kinds 
of Yantras. They are to be worn for averting evil influences, 
curing fever, averting the effect of Abhichara employed by 
an enemy, controlling a recalcitrant wife and various other 
purposes. 



INTRODUCTION 



57 



Verses 87-110 is a hymn to the Devi Anandamayl ( Bliss ) 
who is Shabda Brahman and Cause of the Universe. 

The hymn begins by saying "O Mother ! I sing Thy 
praise so that thereby my words may be purified. Thou art 
the primordial Mother of all. Thou hast created the bodies 
of Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva and Thou dost create, maintain 
and withdraw into Thyself the three worlds." Again the 
hymn says (V. 91 ) that though the Devi is the first 
of all ( preceded creation ) yet She is in the first flush of 
Her youth ; though She is the daughter of the rocky 
Mountain ( Himalaya ) yet is She soft (kind) ; though She 
is the Mother of the Vedas, She is not seen by them ; though 
meditated upon, She is beyond the scope of the mind. It is 
again said ( V. 102 ) that Shiva not satisfied with looking at 
and admiring Her with two eyes created in the excess of his 
adoration a third eye on his forehead the more fully to see the 
beauty of Her thighs. 

CHAPTER XXV. 

This chapter deals with Yoga. It begins by saying 
( Vv. 1 — 3 ) that according to Vedanta the union of Jiva and 
Atma is Yoga ; according to the Shaivas, the knowledge of 
the oneness of Shiva and Atma is Yoga ; according to the 
Uttaramnaya the realisation of the inseprateness of Shiva and 
Shakti is Yoga. The dualistic Vais^wavas and others say 
that the knowledge of the Purarcapuru^a is Yoga. 

Purarcapurm^a, according to the dualistic Va.iskna.va, is 
Purus^ottama ; Sankhya says it is Puru^a ; Naiyayikas 
say it is Ishvara. 

The first thing, the aspirant for Yoga has to do, is ( V.4 ) 
to conquer the six enemies, namely, Kama ( Desire for sexual 
and other enjoyment ), Krodha ( Urge to injure ), Lobha 
( Thirst for wealth and the like ), Moha ( Ignorance of the 
Real, the Tattva ), Mada ( Pride of birth, wealth, learning and 
the like ), Matsara ( Envy ). 

These can be conquered by ( V. 5 ) the eight limbs 



58 



INTRODUCTION 



( Angas ) of Yoga. These are Yama, Niyama, Asana, Pra- 
#ayama, Pratyahara, Dhara«a, Dhyana and Samadhi. 

Yama, it is said ( V. 7. ), consists of Ahimsa ( Disin- 
clination to injure ), Satya ( Avoidance of untruth ), Asteya 
( Disinclination to steal ), Brahmacharya ( Disinclination for 
sexual enjoyment), KWpa ( Compassion ), Arjava ( Guileless- 
ness ), Ky^ama ( Absence of anger towards an aggressor ), 
Dlm'ti ( Imperturbability ), Mitahara ( Restriction of food to 
just what is needed for the preservation of the body ), 
Shaucha ( External purity leading to purity of disposition ). 

Raghava cites texts which explain these more fully. He 
says that by Ahimsa and Brahmacharya, Kama is vanquished ; 
and by Krtpa. and K^ama, Krodha. By the practice of 
Asteya, Satya and Arjava, Lobha is killed. Mitahara and 
Shaucha destroy Moha. By K^ama and Arjava is Mada 
destroyed. Ahimsa, KWpa, Arjava and Ki^ama destroy 
Matsara. 

Niyama comprises ( V. 8. ) Tapas ( Penance ), Santo^a 
( Contentment ), Astikya ( Belief in a future life leading to the 
practice of Dharma ), Dana ( Charity according to one's 
means for discharging debts due to the Devas, Pitt's and 
Manar^yas ), Devapujana ( Worship of the I^a-devata : 
Form of the Brahman adopted by the Sadhaka ), Siddhanta- 
shravaraa ( Listening to the teachings of the Upani^ads and 
other Shastras ), Hri ( Aversion towards low and wicked 
pursuits ), Mati ( Discrimination ), Japa ( Recitation of 
Mantra with concentration in manner enjoined by the Guru ), 
and Homa. 

Verses 9 to 15 describe the five Asanas, namely, Padma, 
Svastika, Vajra, Bhadra and Vlra. 

Verses 16-22 describe Pra«ayama and its different stages. 

Verses 23 defines Pratyahara to be the restraint of the 
senses from the objects thereof. 

Verses 24 and 25 describe Dharawa. Shortly it means 
the restraint of the vital air ( Pra»a-vayu ) in different part of 
the Sadhaka's system. 



Introduction 



59 



This is fully explained by Raghava by citing a text from 
Vashu^Ma Samhita. 

Dhyana means (V. 26) meditation on the Sadhaka's own 
I^/a-devata as the Atma, with mind unperturbed and 
immersed in his own Chaitanya. 

Samadhi (V. 27 ) is the constant realisation of the oneness 
of the Jivatma and the Paramatma. 

After saying ( V. 28. ) that the length of a man's 
body is 96 fingers' width of his own fingers and that in the 
human frame are both Shiva and Shakti or as some say 
both Fire and Moon or as others say both Semen and Blood, 
the text proceeds to describe KundaUm Yoga. 

The Nadls and Chakras are ( Vv. 29—32 ) described as in 
the Sia/chakra-nirupa«a ( vide Arthur Avalon's 'Serpent 
Power* ). 

In speaking of the Chakras or Adharas the author says 
( V. 33. ) that there is a difference of opinion as to the 
number of the same. Verse 34 speaks of the Naote. 

Raghava states that some say that there are twelve 
Chakras, others that there are sixteen and others again, that 
they are many. He cites some texts in support of this. 

Verses 35-38 say that Kuraafelim abides in the Muladhara 
and resting on the Hamsa^ unites with the Paramatma. 
Hamsa^ rests on vital breath ( Pra«a-vayu ). 

Verses 39-47 describe how and when the Sadhaka should 
sit and begin his practices and how he should proceed. 
Particular attention is drawn to the necessity for the Yogi to 
know which of the Bhutas ( Elements ) is dominant in his 
system at the time. 

Verses 48, 49 speak of the manifestation in the inner 
consciousness of the Yogi of the ten kinds of Dvani 
( Sound ). 

The different sounds are the same as in the Hamsopanijvfcat 
cited by Raghava. 

Verses 50-53 speak of the origin of the Pra«ava. It is 
here shown how the Pra«ava is immanent in the Ajapa 



6o 



INTkODUCTtON 



( Hamsa/fc ) Mantra which is both male and female — Ham 
being male ( Pum ) and Sa^, female ( Praknti ). 

Verse 54 describes Pra#ava. It is supreme Bliss and ever 
is. It is Chaitanya or J nana and inseparate from Atma. 

Verses 55-57 speak of the ineffable Kufestha Brahman. 
He is far beyond the word of the Vedas. From him emanate 
the Shastras. He is self-manifest, Bliss itself and Light itself. 
He is Truth and beyond all arguments, the source of the 
Vedas, the Cause of the Universe, spread over all that is 
moving and motionless and without compare. He is the inner- 
most Chaitanya. The Sun, Fire and Moon are his body as 
He is Light ( Prakasha ). He is seen by the Yogis whose 
senses are controlled. He is realised by the seven parts of the 
Pra«ava. He is immeasurable. The Upani^ads lead up to 
Him. He is Samvit all-spreading, unchanging and imperish- 
able. He is the transcendent Tejas the massive nectar of 
Bliss. [ The text has the neuter pronoun ]. 

All that has here been said of the Ku/astha or Nirgu#a 
Brahman do not describe but merely point towards him. 

For the benefit of those who cannot apprehend and 
worship the Nirgu«a or attributeless Brahman, verses 58-61 
speak of the worship of the Brahman in his creative and other 
aspects as preparatory steps towards it. As such He is 
Hira«ya-garbha, variegated Light, Source of the three 
( Brahma, Vi^«u and Shiva ), the Seed of the Vedas and 
other Shastras, the Chaitanya in the region of the Sun, 
the Puru^a no bigger than the thumb ( Angu^Ma-matra 
Puruy^a ). He is again described as resting on the Great 
serpent Ananta ( Bhujanga-bhoga ) in the ocean of milk. He 
is united with Kamala ( Lakj^ml ), dark like collyrium with 
lotus-like eyes, the bridge between Dharma and Adharma 
( Dvivarawa ) and so on. Meditation on the Prarcava as 
one with the body of Shiva is the highest form of image 
worship. 

The inner meaning of Bhujanga bhoga or Ananta-bhoga is 
different from what is popularly understood. Bhujanga or 



Introduction 



61 



Ananta means the Brahman who is endless. He who enjoys 
( Bhungkte ) this Ananta is Ananta-bhoga. The sense is 
that the Brahman with attributes emanates from and rests 
on the attributeless Brahman. 

Verses 62, 63 speak first of Sablja Yoga. It is said that 
Kuttdalini is Finda which means lumped up, A. U. M. and is 
therefore the Pra«ava. She is Shiva ( Shivatma ). Hamsa^, 
the inner self ( Antaratma ) of all, is her place ( Pada ). Bindu 
is the form ( Rupa ) of limitless lustre. The union of Shiva 
and Shakti is beyond form. Sadhakas when they go beyond 
this world of forms to the apprehension of the Union of 
Kurcaklinl with Shiva attain Sayujya Mukti. When every- 
thing is dissolved in Shiva who ever is, and nothing is 
desired, it is Nirblja Yoga. This is Sarupya Mukti. 

Verses 64-79 describe Raja Yoga which is effected by 
meditation on Ku«rfalini whereby the Atma is realised. 

Ku#a!alini ( V. 64 ), when she wakes up and moves from 
the Muladhara upward like a flash of lightning along the 
channel of Su^umna, pierces the six Chakras as she goes 
upward and when she reaches the Sahasrara, she unites with 
her Lord, Para Shiva. Then she returns to her own abode in 
the Muladhara. 

Verses 65-72 give some attributes indicative of the subtle 
and transcendent nature of Ku«aklini and a description of her 
progress to the Sahasrara and end by saying that though, 
for the purposes of Sadhana, she is endowed with attributes 
she cannot be known by them, she can only be meditated 
upon ( Dhyeya na vedya gunaik ). 

Verses 73-76 contain a hymn to Ku«^alinl intended 
further to stimulate the Sadhaka's earnestness for Yoga. It is 
said (V. 73 ) when she goes up shining like lightning the 
lotuses on her path put on a smiling appearance gladdened by 
the charm of her presence. 

Verses 77-82 contains a Dhyana of Ku«a!alim. In this 
further details of her progress upward is given. 

Verse 77 says that the letters of the alphabet, as also the 



62 



INTRODUCTION 



Shaktis, Z?akinl and others, the Devas, Brahma and others are 
in the six Chakras. Verse 78 says that when Ku«^alinl moves 
up like a streak of lightning, she unites with the three Shivas, 
Svayambhu in the Muladhara, Va«a in the Anahata and Itara 
in the Ajna Chakra. The three coils of Ku#dalinl are the 
three Gu»as,— Sattva, Rajas, Tamas. 

In Verse 82 it is said that the Yogi gets the fruit of Yoga 
when with his senses perfectly controlled and his Dhl 
( higher unerring mind ) absolutely immobile, he places his 
own Atma in the Parashiva who is the void not limited by 
space and time, the mere Chaitanya and in whom the five 
Kara«as are dissolved. 

The five Kara»as or causes of any action, Raghava says, 
are, — Upadana, Samavayi, Nimitta, Prayojaka, Sahakari. 

The proofs were in part read by Sj. Haridasa Mitra, m.a. 
and partly by Sj. Panchanana Sankhya-Vyakara»at"irtha. 



April IQ33 



A.S. 



Note on the first Chapter 



by Sj. Jnanendra Lai Majumdar. 

"I shall speak the beneficial Saradatilaka which is the essence of the 
Tantras, the first cause for the attainment of Dharma, Artha, Kama and Moksa 
( religious merit, wealth, desire and liberation )". With this introduction 
( i. 4 ), the author, Lak*ma«a, begins the book, a compendium of Tantras 
extant in his time, and in 25 chapters deals with the theory and practice of 
Tantrik worship. As the Tantra Shastra is preeminently a practical Shastra 
dealing with Upasana or worship of the Deity with rites, Mantras and Yoga, the 
author has devoted only a small chapter, the first, to the philosophy underlying 
the practice. 

The philosophy of the Tantra. 

2. "Eternal Shiva should be known as Nirgu«a and Sagu«a, Nirgu«a is 
dissociated from Prakn'ti and Sagu«a is associated with Prakr/ti" ( 1. 6 ). 
Thus, in the beginning, there were two ultimate principles, Shiva and Praknti, 
the principle of consciousness and the principle of unconsciousness. This looks 
like Sankhya dualism, but it is not so. For in Sankhya unconscious Praknti is 
the Cause and there is no room for God or Ishvara. Nor is it the dualism of 
the Yoga system of Patanjali, for therein an individual, enjoying freedom from 
the troubles of the world, is the Ishvara, and Prakr/ti is the cause. Here 
( i. 7 ), however, "the supreme Ishvara who is rich in the wealth of 
Sat ( Existence )-Chit ( Consciousness )-Ananda ( Bliss ) jand associated 
with Prak«ti", is the cause. ( Light is a better rendering of Chit than 
Consciousness, and perhaps Life is a better word for Sat than Existence. ) 
It is, therefore, a form of monism in which Shiva is dissociated from and 
associated with Praknti ( nirgu«a^ sagu«ashcha ). This Shiva cannot be the 
ultimate principle of absolute consciousness as conceived in Shankara's monism 
in which the principle of consciousness or Brahma is the only reality, Prak«'ti 
and its products being really unreal, and even Ishvara or creator God 
vanishes in moksha or ultimate dissolution ( "IshvarasturiyagrasaA"-N«'simhata- 
pan! Upanijad ). Verse I speaks of one Shiva, and not two Shivas, dissociated 
from and associated with Prakn'ti. Hence he cannot be identified with 
Brahma of Shankara's philosophy who is never associated with Prakwti, the 
unreality. It cannot also be said that the association of Brahma with Praknti 
is the view-point of the ignorant Jiva, for here the author is enunciating the 
first principle in his system of philosophy and presenting an ideal for attainment 



6 4 



INTRODUCTION 



by Tantrik Sadhakas. At least in the absence of further elucidation by the 
author himself we cannot be justified in identifying his Sagu«a-Nirgu»a Shiva 
with the Nirgurca Brahma of Shankara's philosophy. Moreover, it should be 
considered that Tantra being preeminently an upasana shastra cannot hold up 
Nirgu«a Brahma, who is in no way associated with the Action of creation, as the 
object of upasana. Upasana must, somehow, be theistic. 

3. The authority for such a view of monism may be found in such texts 
of Shruti as, — 

"te dhyanayoganugata apishyan devatmashakting svagu«airnigu^am" 
( Shvetashvatara Upanuad 1, 3 ) — Rapt in meditative concentration they saw 
the self-energy ( atma-shakti ) of the Divinity hidden by its potencies ( gu«as ) ; 

"mayang tu prakn'ting vidyan mayinang tu maheshvaram" ( Ibid IV, 10 ) 
— MSya should be known as Prakw'ti and the May! [ the lord of of Maya ) as 
Maheshvara ( great Ishvara ) ; 

"sa vishvakr?dvishvavidatmayonirjna^ kalakala gu«I sarvavit" (Hid VI, 16) — 
He is the maker of the universe, the knower of the universe, Himself His own 
cause, the sentient, the death of Death ( or time ), the possessor of gu«as 
( potencies ), the cogniser of all. 

4. The association of the Divinity with Prakn'ti or Maya is pithily put 
forth in the Glta, — "daivi hyeja gu«amayl mama maya duratyaya" ( Bhagavad- 
Glta VII, 14 ) — this Divine Maya of mine, consisting of gu«as ( potencies ), is 
difficult to surpass. 

5. Indeed all sects of Upasakas, the treaders of the path of Bhakti princi- 
pally, seem to have idealised a form of Divinity in which the Supreme, who is 
all consciousness, is associated with unconscious creative energy for the purpose 
of creation which is His sport ( Ilia ), maintaining at the same time His own 
purity and blissfulness. According to the dualistic Vau«avas, He is ever 
sagu«a, possessed of infinite inscrutable potencies, the nirguna aspect being 
only a passive phase in His creative manifestation or emanation. He is the 
infinite God with infinite expansion out of whom an infinite number of atomic 
Jlvas have been flung out as pawns in His divine Sport of Love, ever remaining 
distinct from Him but finding their summum bonum in their service of Him 
in His kingdom of Heaven. According to the Shaktas He is sagu«a as the 
Creator and nirguwa as the Liberator, all Jlvas being, on liberation, merged in 
the infinitude of His eternal Being. He is both sagurca and nirguwa, neither 
sagu«a nor nirgu«a, beyond all gu«as but still of them. Between Him, the 
Shiva, and the Jlva, there is only the bar of the bonds of individuality 
( Jlvahood ). The Jlva, when he has thrown off this bondage, becomes Shiva, 
"Pashabaddho bhavejjiva/4 pashamukto maheshvara^". 

6. Sagu«a Shiva, "rich in the wealth of Existence or Being, Consciousness 
and Bliss", is the Self-sufficient ( svatantra, svayampur«a ) energised conscious 
Being out of whom creation is evolved. He is both the material and the 
efficient cause of the creation. The first steps of the evolution are as follows — 



INTRODUCTION 



65 



Table I ( verses 7-16 ) Sagu«a Shiva ( energised consciousness ) 

Shakti ( conscious energy ) 

N&da ( conscious energy in undifferentiated 
I vibration ) 

Para Bindu 



Shabda— Brahma ( conscious energy in undiffer- 
| entiated consolidation ) 



Bindu 
( differentiated 



energy = 
Shiva ) 

Rudra 
= Ichchhashakti 
( volition energy ) 
called Fire, 
representing 
Tamas gu«a. 



I 

Bija 
( differentiated 
conscious energy = 
Shakti, the seed 
of creation ) 

Vistm 
= Jnana Shakti 
( cognition energy ) 
called Sun, 
representing 
Sattva gu«a. 



N&da 

( the resultant conscious 
energy in vibration due 
to the coalescence of 
Bindu and Bija ) 

Brahma 
-Kriyi Shakti 
( action energy ) 
called Moon, 
representing 
Rajas gu«a. 



7. This is a creative evolution, without any vikSra or diversifying change, 
in Sagu«a Shiva, caused by His will ( Ishvara-chodita ). In Him, the infinite 
energised conscious Being, there awakes, first of all, conscious energy, the 
Shakti or Maham&ya who is the Mother of the world and with whom He is one. 
This Shakti or, rather, Shiva-Shakti, rouses in Herself a cosmic creative vibra- 
tion, not yet gathered in diversified centres, and is called Nida. This infinite 
undifferentiated conscious vibratory energy becomes next somewhat consoli- 
dated ( ghanibhuta ), that is, attains a state of imminent differentiation 
( vyakara«onmukhata ).. This is called Para ( supreme ) Bindu. He is more 
significantly called Shabda-Brahma, the universal conscious sound, the cosmic 
toll in which shape Sagu«a Shiva, the Parameshvara, rings out the creation as 
an endless diversity of conscious energy. ( It should be remembered that mass 
and energy are interchangeable according to modern science ). In the 
individual living being it is the Ku«rfalinl energy. Shabda — Brahma is the first 
creative aspect of the Great God out of which evolve the differentiations of 
conscious energy in three forms, namely Bindu, the parent of will or volition, 
Bija, the parent of perception or cognition, and N5da, the parent of action 
which springs out of a combination of cognition and volition. ( Cf. Parasya 
shaktirvividhaiva shruyate Svabhavikl jnanavalakriya cha. Shvetashvatara Up. 
VI. 8 ). In volition there is the play of desire, born of ignorance. In it, 
therefore, Tamas, that is, the blinding potency ( gu«a ) of Prakriti, pre- 



66 



INTRODUCTION 



dominates. In cognition there is the light of knowledge. In it Sattva, the 
revealing or enlightening potency of Praknti, predominates. And in action 
Rajas, the active or exciting potency of Prakriti, predominates. They represent 
Rudra, Vismi and Brahma, the Destroyer, the Preserver and the Creator, of 
Hindu theology, the differentiated triple aspect of Parama Shiva or Mahamaya 
or Shabda-Brahma who are one. 

8. Out of Para Bindu or Shabda-Brahma evolves the endless diversified 
creation, with which we are acquainted, from the subtlest conscious energy, 
Mahat or intelligence, to the grossest energy constituting the physical world 
which seems to be entirely devoid of consciousness, though we have no right 
to say that it is really so. The following table ( Table II ) gives the order ; — 

Table II v3 rses 17 — 26) Para Bindu or Shabda — Brahma 



Mahat ( intelligence ) 
Ahangkfira ( egoism ; I— sense ) 



(The 10 senses — 5 senses of perception 
and 5 senses of action — are consi- 
dered as conscious energies, their 
consciousness aspects being the 
presiding deities of their unconsci- 
ous energy aspects, the sense or 
nerve powers which are the 
kara«as or instruments of their 
presiding deities. ) 



The Tanmatras, 5 in number, 
which are the subtle princi- 
ples of solidity, fluidity, 
luminosity, vitality and 
spatiality. 



The deities presiding over 
the senses, 10 in number 
( s&ttvika ) 



The senses 
( indriyas ), 
10 in number 



Shabda Tanmatra 
( sound or spatiality ) 



Akasha 
( space ) 




Vayu 
( life or vital air ) 



( touch or 



vitality ) 



Tejas Rupa Tanm&tra 



( fire or light ) ( form or luminosity ) 



Apa Rasa Tanmatra 



( the waters, liquid and ( taste or fluidity ) 



gaseous fluids ) | 



Kjiti Gandha Tanmatra 

( earth ) ( smell or solidity ) 



INTRODUCTION 



67 



The original ( verse 18 ) speaks of 10 presiding deities, but Raghava 
Bha//a, following the Sankhya classification, explains Ka as referring to both 
Prajapati, the deity presiding over the sexual organs, and Moon ( Chandra ), 
the deity presiding over mind, thus making the number of deities and of the 
senses eleven, with mind as the nth sense. But as the text runs, we should 
rather include mind in Mahat as a phase of the inner sense ( AntaAkara^a, 
verse 17 ). 

9. From Shabda-Brahma or the conscious cosmic sound, the conscious 
cosmic energy stirred up to the point of diversifying creative potentiality, evolves 
Mahat or cosmic intelligence, from the Mahat, Ahangkara or cosmic feeling as I, 
one universal ego out of which the diversified world of subjects and objects is to 
evolve, the samaj/i Puruja comprehending in Himself the world of subjects and 
objects. 

The fulfilment of the "I" — sense, necessitated by the creative urge, comes 
from the evolution, out of it, of the subject as the cogniser and actor, the 
object as the cognised and the instruments of cognition and action. Hence 
evolve the universal deities presiding over the universal indriyas for the 
cognition of the universal objects, the sense-gods, the senses and the objects of 
the senses, all out of the universal Ahangkara. As regards the objects of the 
senses, Hindu Philosophy has never recognised any essential differences between 
them. They are all of the same origin, differing only in the degree of cohesion 
or consolidation and thus giving rise to different distinctive properties cognised 
by the different senses. They are all manifestations of energy and in their 
subtle forms are characters rather than matters with characters and are hence 
called Tanmatras or Tanmatras ( foAthat, tndtra- only ), things in their essential 
character. The subtlest of the Tanmatras is Shabda ( sound ), a mere vibration 
or pulsation of energy. From it evolves, in the grosser scale, Akasha or space, 
the seat of all material vibrations. The next of the Tanmatras, evolving out of 
Shabda, is Sparsha ( touch ), the character which constitutes the root of all 
perceptions, for all perceptions are primarily the feelings of touch of the per- 
ceiver with the objects perceived. It is the vitality or life-principle underlying 
all perceptions. Out of it evolves, in the grosser field, Vayu, or vital airs, which 
in the material body, constitutes its life. 

10. The word Vayu is generally taken to mean the physical air, probably 
because the presence of air is generally proved by sparsha or touch only. But it 
is doubtful whether even the ancients could consider the physical air as a subtler 
matter than light or heat. Moreover, the Rig Veda speaks of the apa ( the 
waters, as they are usually but perhaps incorrectly translated ) as being both 
water and air. For, the heavenly bodies, the sun and the moon are said to be 
moving in currents of apa, certainly meaning thereby currents of physical air 
which, they thought, pervaded all space ( 1 ). The sun is called apangnapat, 

( 1 ) Cf. Rigveda I, 23, 17 ; VII, 49, 4 ; VII, 85, 3 ; II, 35, 4"; VII, 30,4 
Where celestial waters are spoken of. 



68 



INTRODUCTION 



that is, the son of apa ( 2 ). Hence apa would include all fluids, both liquid and 
gaseous. From such considerations I have taken Vayu to mean the vital airs, 
the life-principle of the senses which function through sparsha or touch. In 
the Upanuads the senses or indrlyas are called praoas ( modes of life ), and 
Vayu is pra«a, The indriyas are the shaktis of perception, the prft/tas 
underlying it, and Vayu constitutes these shaktis or prawas. Again, the Chhando- 
gya Upanijad speaks of the physical world as constituted of tejas, apa and anna 
( fire, the waters and food or earth ) ( 3 ). This tripartite ( trim't ) 
constitution of the physical world can never be complete without air, for even 
a barbarian will say that air is a necessary constituent of it. Commentators, 
therefore, who consider Vayu to mean air, have been obliged to consider the 
Chhandogya statement as incomplete and seek to supplement it by statements 
from the B«hadara«yaka and other Upanwads which speak of the creation of 
Akasha and Vayu before the creation of Tejas. But the proper view should, 
I think, be to divide the five— Akasha, Vayu, Tejas, Apa and Kiiti— into 
two groups, placing Akasha and Vayu in one group, and Tejas, Apa and K«ti 
in the other, so that the principles of space and vitality may be separated from 
the principles of heat, light, fluidity and solidity of which the material world, 
as we call it, is constituted. And this is what the Chhandogya Upanijad seems 
to have done. 

11. From the Sparsha-Tanmatra evolves the Rflpa Tanmatra, the principle 
of visibility or luminosity, which gives the visible appearance ( rupa ) to objects, 
and from it evolves, in the grosser scale, heat and light ( tejas ). The next in 
order is Rasa-Tanmatra or the principle of fluidity which gives to every object 
its distinctive rasa or taste and from which evolve all liquids and gases. The 
last is the Gandha-Tanmatra, the principle of solidity which has the distinctive 
characteristic of smell, it was supposed, and out of which the solid earth is 
evolved. 

12. These five, Bhutas ( existents ) as they are called, are forms of Shakti 
or energy. The energy in Akasha ( space ) is called Shantyatiti, the Very 
Quiescent. The energy in Vayu ( vital air ) is Shanti, the Quiescent. That 
in Tejas ( heat & light ) is Vidya, the Enlightener. That in Apa ( the fluids ) 
is PratijAia, the Stay. And that in Kriti ( Earth ) is called Nivntti, the Final. 
All these evolve from Nada, the conscious energy in vibration which is personi- 
fied in Brahma, the Creator or Kriyashakti ( action-energy ) who is the result, 
ant of the coalescence of Rudra, the Ichchha-shakti ( volition-energy ), and 
Visnu, the Jnana-shakti ( cognition-energy ). See Table I. 

13. Here ends the order of universal creative evolution by the will of God- 
The involution is in the reverse order, says Raghava Bhatfa. 

14. "All this world, consisting of moving and non-moving things, is 

( 2 ) R. V. II, 35 ; I, 22, 6 : VI, 50, 13 > VII, 34. *5 5 VII, 9, 3 > 
X, 2, 7 5 X, 30, 4. 

{ 3 ) Chhandogya Up. VI, 2, 3-4. 



INTRODUCTION 



6 9 



composed of the five Bhutas ( existents, Kiiti, Apa, Tejas, Vayu and Ak&sha ). 
Many are the forms into which non-moving things are divided such as rocks, 
plants and so forth. Moving things, however, are divided into three classes, 
namely, those which are born out of secretions or heat (svedaja), those which are 
born out of eggs (a«rfaja) and those which are born out of the womb ( jarftyuja ). 
Man belongs to this last class of jarayujas ( uterines )." ( Verses 27-29 ). 
It should be noted that things are divided into moving and non-moving things 
and not into living and non-living things. The Hindus have always known 
plants to be living although non-moving and have always been averse to 
classify any objects as absolutely non-living. They have rather the idea that 
there is life or sensation in every thing, however much obscure or crude it may 
be. Everything in the universe, they suppose, is made up of a conscious factor 
and an unconscious factor, the conscious factor manifesting itself as the living 
subject capable of sensation and the unconscious factor manifesting itself as the 
object of sensation through sight, touch and so forth. This point has been 
tersely put by Hindu philosophers as "dfishyatvat jadatvam", the fact of being 
unconscious comes from the fact of being an object of perception. Thus such 
parts of a man as are capable of being seen, heard, touched, tasted or smelt, or 
becoming in any way objects of perception make up the unconscious factor in 
him and the part of him which can perceive the sensations of sight and so forth 
is his conscious factor. And it is the blending of these two, the conscious 
factor and the unconscious factor, which constitutes life. The world is evolved 
out of energised consciousness, Sagu«a or Sakala Shiva, that is, consciousness 
in intimate association with Gu«a or Frakriti or unconsciousness. Hence no 
part of it is absolutely devoid of consciousness, as no part of it is absolutely 
devoid of unconsciousness. And through this intimate association of the two 
there is life or sensibility everywhere, whether we detect it or not. 

1 5. Into the womb enters a Bindu ( drop ) which is male, female or neuter 
and a combination of ovum and sperm, "and then an atma controlled by the 
chain of nescience in consonance with previous karma assumes jlvahood ( the 
state of individualised existence ) therein ( in the Bindu )" ( verse 31 ). The 
Bindu is surely not the spirit that inhabits it. But the question is, how did the 
spirit come to inhabit it ? Was the spirit in the sperm or was it in the ovum 
or was it in neither but came later to the body built in the womb ? The 
Shruti leans to the idea that it was in the sperm ( vide Panchagnividya, the 
science of Five Fires, in Chhandogya and B/ihadara«yaka Upanifads ). But 
the author here seems to hold the idea that it is after the sperm and the ovum 
have combined to form a Bindu or drop-like substance, the blastosphere, or 
cytula ( as Hasckel calls it ), of physiology, that the spirit comes to reside in it. 
But what again is this spirit ( atma ) that comes to reside in the Bindu that 
enters into the womb to develop into the future body of the individual ? Is it 
the atma who is consciousness itself and eternal and with whom there is no 
such thing as being bora or dying ? Or, is it the jiv&tma, the consciousness 



INTRODUCTION 



of life, that is, the conciousness that illumines the mind or subtle body which 
re-incarnates from gross body to gross body, thus suffering life and death ? 
Raghava Bhatfa, the commentator, thinks that here the appearance of an eternal 
atma has been spoken of in accordance with the Sankhya conception of 
multiplicity of eternal atmas, and considers such an atma "as entering a 
body as one enters a house". But an eternal atma, though one of many such 
atm a s according to Sankhya, is infinite and inactive fnukriya) at the same 
time. Hence it is almost meaningless to say that such an atma enters a body 
and assumes jlvahood therein, if he was not already a jiva there. More 
probably what the author here means to say is that the jlvatma, who was, 
according to Shruti, sleeping in the sperm in the father's body, awakes, in the 
mother's womb, to assume the burdens jlvahood in the fertilised egg. 

16. In the womb the Bindu is nourished by the food taken by the 
mother and grows into a body complete with all necessary paraphernalia, and 
at last the child is born into sunlight. It is the belief of all Hindus, a belief 
that has come down from the days of the Upanijads, that the jiva in the 
matured foetus is enlightened about his past karma, sorely grieves for the 
karma that binds him to the wheel of life and death and makes up his mind 
to undo this karma by meritorious karma in his present life on earth. But 
the pain of birth makes him unconscious and brings about a total forgetfulness 
of all this. The author here also echoes this idea. 

17. It has been said before that Para Bindu or Shabda-Brahma, the 
undiversified infinite conscious energy, out of whom evolves the diversified 
world of subjects and objects, appears in the individual body as Ku«ialinl 
shakti or conscious spiral energy. She is the concious creative energy, the . 
Mother of all things that constitute the individual, the world of Shabda and 
Artha in him. Shabda is the vibration which gradually becomes language and 
ultimately issues out of the vocal organs as articulate sound. An Artha is 
the conceptual counterpart of a Shabda which has first a mental shape or 
thought-form and ultimately assumes the form of an object perceptible to any 
of the senses or the mind. 













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